Footnotes and Endnotes
How to Create Footnotes or Endnotes in Chicago Style
- How do I create a footnote or endnote?
- How is a footnote different from an endnote?
- What do I include in the footnote or endnote?
Using footnotes or endnotes involves placing a superscript number at the end of a sentence with information (paraphrase, quotation or data) that you wish to cite. The superscript numbers should generally be placed at the end of the sentence to which they refer. They should be placed after any punctuation marks except for the dash.
Footnotes/endnotes begin with 1 and are numbered consecutively throughout the entire essay. You can use MS Word or other software to create footnotes and endnotes.
A superscript number refers to a footnote or endnote which contains all of the publishing information and the page number for the information referenced.
- Footnotes appear on the bottom of the page that contains the sentence to which it refers.
- Endnotes are listed at the end of the paper on separate pages. On the top of the first page, the title “Notes” is centered one inch from the top of the page. Endnote pages are placed before the bibliography.
Many professors prefer footnotes to endnotes. Check with your professors to see which style they prefer.
The format for a footnote or endnote varies depending on whether it refers to a book, article, or online source. There are some key characteristics common to all footnotes and endnotes:
- The footnote/endnote begins with the same superscript number as the one that appears in the paper and is followed by a period.
- Footnotes/endnotes always include a specific page number or numbers where the cited information can be found.
- The first footnote/endnote to a source provides the full publishing information.
1. Carolyn Kay, Art and the German Bourgeoisie: Alfred Lichtwark and Modern Painting in Hamburg, 1886-1914 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002), 100.
Subsequent footnote/endnotes for the same source are shortened to provide only the author’s last name, short title, and page number. For example:
2. Kay, Art and the German Bourgeoisie, 51.
3. Kay, Art and the German Bourgeoisie, 87.
Note that The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.) no longer recommends the use of "ibid." for footnote/endnotes that cite the same source as the note immediately preceding it. The shortened citation shown above (author surname, shortened title, page number) is preferred.
Citing different types of sources
The information you include in a footnote varies based on the type of source you cite; navigate to the following pages to learn more:
- Sections of Books
- Digital Media
- Other Sources
- Primary Sources
- Citing a source (that you have not read) that is Cited in Another Source
Key Elements to Notice
- In footnotes, information is separated by commas, while in the bibliography, it is separated by periods.
- In footnotes, the author's first name is listed first, while in the bibliography, the author's last name is listed first.
- The titles of books and journals are put in italics.
- The titles of articles are put in quotation marks.
- All key words in titles are capitalized.