CSE Harvard: In-text Citations
- Single Author Examples
- Direction Quotation
- Introduced Direct Quotation
- Author Variations
- Two Authors
- Three or More Authors
- Two Authors with the Same Last Name
- Author with Multiple Dates
- Organization as Author
- No Author
- No Date
Harvard style uses a name-year system. Use the last name of the author and the year of publication within parentheses for in-text citations.
Population is central to our everyday thoughts and practices (Schaefer 2006).
For a direct quotation, include the page number after the year. Notice that there is no comma between the name and date, only a space, but that there is a colon between the date and page number.
"The population represents the centrepiece of biological thought and practice" (Schaefer 2006:236).
Introduced Direct Quotation
According to Schaefer (2006), "the population represents the centrepiece of biological thought and practice" (236).
"[A] number of interferometers capable of resolving nearby M dwarfs have come into service" (Dawson and De Robertis 2004:2909).
Three or more Authors
Later studies (Ito et al. 1999) established that …..
Two Authors with the Same Last Name
Animal experimentation (Dawson J 1986; Dawson M 1986) showed…
Author with Multiple Dates
Binford’s (1979, 1980) discussions of formation processes in archaeology….
Organization as Author
Use an acronym or a shortened form for the name of an organization to avoid interrupting the text with a long string of words.
A study on bullet lead composition (NRC 2004) indicates that….
- The abbreviation appears as the initial element in the end note reference in square brackets.
[NRC] National Research Council (US). 2004. Forensic Analysis: Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence; report of a study by a committee on Scientific Assessment of Bullet Lead Elemental Compositional Comparison. Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences.
Use the first word or few words of the title of the source. For example, shorten the Handbook of Geriatric Assessment to simply Handbook.
(Green [date unknown])