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International Development Studies

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International Development Studies

Q-Squared Working Papers

Q2Q2 -  Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches in Poverty Analysis - was a research initiative of  Ravi Kanbur, T. H. Lee Professor of World Affairs at Cornell University. It was followed-up by a research project led by Paul Shaffer, Professor of International Development Studies, Trent University with support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) (Canada) from 2004-2007. The aim was to promote a better integration of ‘qual’ and ‘quant’ approaches to poverty assessment in the Global South through information sharing and networking, national capacity building and the piloting of innovative methodologies. 

Q2 activities included conferences of the same name held at Cornell University (2001), the University of Toronto (2004) and the Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences (2007). This led to the publication of a monograph (Q-Squared, Delhi: Permanent Black, 2001) and Special Issues of World Development (Vol. 35, No.  2, 2007) and the International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches (Vol. 2, No. 2, 2008), respectively. A Q2 Working Paper Series was also produced, which included all conference papers as well as others materials.

The Q2 Working Paper Series has now been taken over by the Department of International Development Studies (IDST) at Trent University. Trent's IDST program is the oldest in Canada with a long tradition of promoting interdisciplinary research.

Q2 Working Paper Series

NO   Date   Title (Author/s)
69   Summer 2018   Explaining Immiserizing Growth - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada
68   Summer 2018   Impact Assessment of the Effects of Trade on Employment: The Role of Mixed Method Approaches - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada
67   Summer 2018   Methodological Approaches to the Study of Inequality: Applied Microeconomics, Kuznets and Tilly - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada
66   Summer 2016   Immiserizing Growth: A Research Agenda - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada



  Colonialism and Seasonal Poverty in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast, circa 1900-1940 - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada
64   Winter 2013/ 2014  

The ‘Great Myanmar Poverty Debate' - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada






The Value-Added of Causal Pluralism to Poverty Analysis - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada





  ‘Production’ vs. ‘Difference-Making’ in Causal Analysis: Implications for Poverty - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada




Q-Squared in Impact Assessment: A Review* - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada

60   Summer 2012  

Introduction to Q-Squared in Policy: the Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods of Poverty Analysis in Decision-Making* - Paul Shaffer Trent University, Canada, Ravi Kanbur Cornell University, USA, Nguyen Thang,  Centre for Analysis and Forecasting, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam, Ellen Bortei-Doku Aryeetey, Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research, University of Ghana Accra, Ghana

59   Summer 2012  

The Value of Literary Practices  - Lucio Esposito School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Bereket Kebede School of International Development, University of East Anglia, Bryan MaddoxSchool of International Development, University of East Anglia

58   Summer 2012  

Casting the Net Wide and Deep: Lessons Learned in a Mixed-Methods Study of Poverty Dynamics in Rural Bangladesh  - Peter Davis, Social Development Research Initiative, UK, Bob Baulch, Tan Tao University, Vietnam

57   Winter 2012  

Ten Years of 'Q-Squared': Are Two Disciplines Better than One? - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada

56   Winter 2012  

Beneath the 'Methods Debate' in Impact Assessment: Baring Assumptions of a Mixed Methods Impact Assessment in Vietnam Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada

55   Winter 2012   

Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data to Improve our Understanding of Poverty in Uganda  - Diego Angemi

54   Winter 2012  

Who is Poor? One Question, Many Answers and their Implications: A Comparison of Poverty Assessment in Rural Yunnan, China - Caizhen Lu, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences

53   Spring 2008   Behavioural Responses to Changes Accompanying Reform: A Q-Squared Analysis from Than Hoa Province, Vietnam - Paul Shaffer, Trent University, Canada
52   Spring 2008   Poverty Dynamics: Measurement and Understanding from an Interdisciplinary Perspective - Tony Addison, University of Manchester, David Hulme, University of Manchester, Ravi Kanbur, Cornell University
51   Spring 2008   On Trying to be Q-Squared: Merging Methods for a Technically-Minded Client - Nilakshi de Silva and Neranjana Gunetilleke, Centre for Poverty Analysis, Colombo, Sri Lanka
50   Nov. 2007   A The Use of Quantitative and Qualitative Survey Results to Influence Policy: The Case of Participatory Service Deliverty (PSDA) in Zanzibar    - Slaus Mwisomba
49   Nov. 2007   A Q-Squared Approach to Pro-Poor Policy Formulation in Namibia - Sebastian Levine, United Nations Development Programme, Namibia, and Benjamin Roberts, Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa
48   Nov. 2007  

Community-based Change Ranking: Understanding Poverty Dynamics from a Multidimensional Perspective - Munshi Sulaiman and Imran Matin, BRAC, Bangladesh

47   Nov. 2007  

Targeting Context-Specific Reasons for Reducing Poverty Faster: Utilizing the Stages-of-Progress Methodology - Anirudh Khrishna, Duke University

46   Nov. 2007   Trade Liberalisation and Intra-Household Poverty in Vietnam: a Q2 Social Impact Analysis - Nicola Jones, ODI, UK, Nguyen Ngoc Anh, Development and Policies Research Centre, Hanoi, Nguyen Thu Hang, Center for Analysis and Forecasting, Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences, Hanoi
45   Nov. 2007   Monitoring Empowerment in Policy and Programme Interventions: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches - Jeremy Holland and Simon Brook, Oxford Policy Management, UK, Nora Dudwick and Mette Bertelsen, World Bank
44   Nov. 2007   Whose Numbers Count? Resolving Conflicting Evidence on BT Cotton in India - Ronald Herring, Cornell University
43   Nov. 2007  

Identifying and Communicating Pro-Poor Policy Messages to Policy Audiences: the Case of Chronic Poverty in Uganda - Kate Bird, ODI, UK

42   Nov. 2007  

Poverty.Dynamics.and.Life Trajectories in Rural Bangladesh - Bob Baulch, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex and Peter Davis, University of Bath

41   Nov. 2007   Evaluation of entra 21 using Quantitative and Qualitative Data - Maria Alzu, Paula Nahirnak and Belissario de Toledo, IEFAL - Fundaci?n Mediterr?nea, Argentina
40   Nov. 2007  

Combining Survey and Ethnographic Methods to Evaluate Conditional Cash Transfer Programs - Michelle Adato, IFPRI, USA

39   June 2007   Conceptualizing social exclusion in the context of India’s poorest regions: a contribution to the Qual-Quant debate - Arjan de Haan, Department for International Development (UK)
38   June 2007  

Community Wealth-Ranking and Household Surveys: An Integrative Approach - Bereket Kebede, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), University of Oxford

37   June 2007   Figuring Out Accountability: Selected uses of official statistics by civil society to improve public sector performance - Christopher Scott, London School of Economics and Political Science
36   April 2007   From Models to Mechanisms: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives on Literacy and Development - Bryan Maddox, School of Development Studies, University of East Anglia
35   April 2007   Weighting Dimensions of Poverty Based on People’s Priorities: Constructing a Composite Poverty Index for the Maldives - Hans de Kruijk, Erasmus University & Martine Rutten, Dutch Ministry of Finance and School of Economics
34   April 2007   Bringing Politics Back In To Poverty Analysis: Why Understanding of Social Relations Matters More for Policy on Chronic Poverty than Measurement - John Harriss, Simon Fraser University
33   February 2007  

Poverty Measurement Blues: Some Reflections on the Space for Understanding ‘Chronic’ and ‘Structural’ Poverty in South Africa - Dr Andries du Toit, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies, School of Government University of the Western Cape, South Africa

32   February 2007   A Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Poverty Targeting Methods in Vietnam - Nga Nguyet Nguyen, The World Bank, Hanoi Office & Martin Rama, The World Bank, Hanoi Office
31   February 2007  

Core Poverty, Vagueness and Adaptation: A New Methodology and Some Results for South Africa - David A. Clark, Global Povery Research Group (GPRG), Universities of Manchester and Oxford, UK and Institute for Development Policy and Management (IDPM), University of Manchester, UK & Mozaffar Qizilbash, School of Economics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK

30   August 2006  

Annotated Bibliography of Recent Q2 Analyses of Poverty - Jessica da Silva

29   August 2006  

Using Rapid City Surveys to Inform Municipal Social Policy – An Application in Cali, Columbia - Jesko Hentschel, The World Bank

28   August 2006   Inter-country Comparisons of Poverty Based on a Capability Approach: An Empirical Exercise - Sanjay Reddy, Department of Economics, Barnard College and Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy, Columbia University; Sujata Visaria, Department of Economics, Boston University & Muhammad Asali, Department of Economics, Columbia University
27   June 2006   Representing Poverty and Attacking Representations: Perspectives on Poverty from Social Anthropology - Maia Green, Global Poverty Research Group and Department of Social Anthropology, University of Manchester
26   June 2006   Pluralism, Tenancy and Poverty: Cultivating Open-Mindedness in Poverty Studies - Wendy Olsen, Global Poverty Research Group, Universities of Manchester and Oxford, UK.
25   June 2006  

Experiencing Poverty in Africa: Perspectives from Anthropology - David Booth, Overseas Development Institute, UK.; Melissa Leach, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK. & Alison Tierney, University of Edinburgh, UK.

24   April 2006  

Poverty.Dynamics.and.the.Role.of.Livestock.in the Peruvian Andes - P. Kristjanson, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kenya; A. Krishna, Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University; M. Radeny, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Kenya; J. Kuan, Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion (CONDESAN); G. Quilca, CARE-Peru; A. Sanchez-Urrelo, CARE-Peru & C. Leon-Velarde, International Potato Centre (CIP), Peru

23   April 2006   Poverty Persistence and Transitions in Uganda: A Combined Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis - David Lawson, University of Manchester, UK.; Andy McKay, University of Bath & John Okidi, Economic Policy Research Centre, Kampala
22   April 2006   And Never the Twain Shall Meet? An Exchange on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Anthropology and Economics in Analyzing the Commons - Ravi Kanbur, Cornell University & Annelise Riles, Cornell University
21   April 2006  

Conceptual Ferment in Poverty and Inequality Measurement: The View from Economics and Sociology - David Grusky, Stanford University & Ravi Kanbur, Cornell University

20   February 2006   Community Participation in Social Funds in Malawi and Zambia - Anju Vajja, Operations Evaluation Department, World Bank & Howard White, Operations Evaluation Department, World Bank
19   February 2006  

The Case for Cross-Disciplinary Social Science Research on Poverty, Inequality and Well-being - David Hulme, Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester & John Toye, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford

18   February 2006   Conversations between Anthropologists and Economists - Metin M. Cosgel, Economics Dept., University of Connecticut
17   February 2006  

Methodological Approaches in Economics and Anthropology - Pranab Bardhan, Department of Economics, University of California at Berkeley & Isha Ray, Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley

16   December 2005  

The Social Impact of Social Funds in Jamaica: A “Participatory Econometric” Analysis of Targeting, Collective Action, and Participation in Community-Driven Development - Vijayendra Rao, The World Bank, Washington DC & Ana María Ibáñez, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota, Colombia

15   December 2005   Studying Multi-Dimensional Poverty in Ethiopia: towards a Q-Integrated Approach - Philippa Bevan, University of Bath
14   December 2005  

Combining Participatory and Survey-based Approaches to Poverty Monitoring and Analysis*- Simon Appleton, University of Nottingham & David Booth, Overseas Development Institute

13   December 2005  

Participation and Numbers - Robert Chambers, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex

12   October 2005   Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Welfare Policy Evaluations in the United States - Andrew S. London, Syracuse University; Saul Schwartz, Carleton University & Ellen K. Scott, University of Oregon
11   October 2005   The Best of Both Worlds: Producing National Statistics using Participatory Methods - Carlos Barahona, Statistical Services Centre, The University of Reading, UK & Sarah Levy, Calibre Consultants, Reading U.K.
10   October 2005   Understanding Rural Poverty and Investment in Agriculture: An Assessment of Integrated Quantitative and Qualitative Research in Western Kenya - Frank Place, World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya; Michelle Adato, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC & Paul Hebinck, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
9   October 2005   UNDERSTANDING POVERTY AND VULNERABILITY IN INDIA’S UTTAR PRADESH AND BIHAR: A Q-SQUARED APPROACH - Barbara Parker, Save the Children US, Dushanbe, Tajikistan & Valerie Kozel, The World Bank
8   October 2005   ‘P3 > Q2’ IN NORTHERN ORISSA; an example of integrating ‘Combined Methods’ (Q2) through a ‘Platform for Probing Poverties’ (P3) - Alan Rew, Cntr. for Development Studies, University of Wales Swansea; Shahzad Khan, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar, Orissa & Martin Rew, Research Fellow, HIV/AIDS Unit, Division of Social Statistics, University of Southampton.
7   October 2005   SQUARING THE ‘Q’s? METHODOLOGICAL REFLECTIONS ON A STUDY OF DESTITUTION IN ETHIOPIA - Kay Sharp, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex
6   October 2005   Methodological Innovations in Research on the Dynamics of Poverty: A Longitudinal Study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa - Michelle Adato, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, USA; Francie Lund, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa & Phakama Mhlongo, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
5   October 2005    Governance in the Gullies: Democratic Responsiveness and Leadership in Delhi’s Slums - Saumitra Jha, Department of Economics, Stanford University; Vijayendra Rao, Development Research Group, The World Bank & Michael Woolcock, Development Research Group, The World Bank
4   October 2005  

“Hearing the voices of the poor”: Assigning poverty lines on the basis of local perceptions of poverty; a quantitative analysis of qualitative data from participatory wealth ranking in rural South Africa - James R Hargreaves et. al., London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

3   October 2005  

Combining Quantitative and Qualitative methods in Assessing Chronic Poverty: The Case of Rwanda - Gerard Howe, Department for International Development, UK & Andrew McKay, University of Bath, UK

2   October 2005  

Epistemology, Normative Theory and Poverty Analysis: Implications for Q-Squared in Practice - Ravi Kanbur, Cornell University & Paul Shaffer, University of Toronto

1   October 2005  

Q-Squared - Qualitative and Quantitative Poverty Appraisal: Complementarities, Tensions and the Way Forward - Ravi Kanbur (Editor) Cornell University