from: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSI/sf/bpr3-e.pdf 

BPR, Part III October 1991 

Part III: Application Procedures and Rules for FM Broadcasting 
Undertakings 

Contains Amendments as per: 

Change Notice 91a: "Assessment and Control of Maximum Field Strength 

- Notification Procedure to Local Municipalities", February 1991 

Change Notice 91c: "FM/NAV/COM Compatibility", February 1991 

Change Notice 91f: "FM Regional Stations/FM Rebroadcasting Stations", 
September 1991 

SECTION A: INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS (90-4) 

SECTION B: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS 
FOR FM BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ASSIGNMENTS (90-4) 

B-1   APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS (90-4)
B-1.1 Requirements (90-4)
B-2   ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS (90-4)
B-2.1 Title Page (90-4)
B-2.2 Table of Contents (90-4)
B-2.3 Summary Sheet (90-4)
B-2.4 Main Section of Brief (90-4)
B-2.5 Diagrams (90-4)
B-2.6 Vertical Radiation Pattern (90-4)
B-2.7 Horizontal Radiation Pattern (90-4)
B-2.8 Profiles of Ground Elevation (90-4)
B-2.9 Maps (90-4)

B-3   APPLICATIONS FOR STEREOPHONIC BROADCASTING (90-4)

B-4   APPLICATIONS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEX 
      OPERATION (SCMO) (90-4)

B-4.1 Application Requirements (90-4)

B-5 DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT (90-4)

B-6 TECHNICAL OPERATION OF BROADCAST TRANSMITTER PLANTS (90-4)

B-7 ON-AIR TESTING PROCEDURE (90-4)

B-8   FM/NAV/COM COMPATIBILITY (91-2)
B-8.1 Preamble (91-2)
B-8.2 Types of Interference Mechanisms (91-2)
B-8.3 Interference Analysis (91-2)
B-8.4 Interference Prediction Model (91-2)

SECTION C: TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FM 
           BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ALLOTMENTS (90-4)

C-1   ALLOTMENT PRINCIPLES (91-9)
C-1.1 Definitions (91-9)
C-1.2 Allotment Principles (Domestic) (90-4)
C-1.3 Protection Ratios and Permissible Interfering Signals (90-4)

C-1.4 Separation Distances Between Co-channel and Adjacent 
      Channel Allotments (90-4) 

C-1.5 Short Spaced Allotments and Assignments (90-4)
C-1.6 Channels Separated by 800 kHz (90-4)

C-2   CHANGES TO THE TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS (90-4)
C-2.1 Types of Changes (90-4)
C-2.2 Impact on the Plan (90-4)
C-2.3 Application Requirements (90-4)
C-2.4 Incompatibilities (90-4)
C-2.5 Allotment Planning (90-4)

C-3   CONTOUR DETERMINATION (90-4)
C-3.1 Introduction (90-4)
C-3.2 Prediction of Coverage (90-4)
C-3.3 The Location of Service Contours (90-4)

C-4   COMPUTATION OF DISTANCE AND AZIMUTH (90-4)

C-5   ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF MAXIMUM FIELD STRENGTH OF FM 
      BROADCASTING STATIONS (90-11)

C-5.1 Introduction (90-11)
C-5.2 Purpose (90-11)
C-5.3 Requirements for Interference Analyses and Population Estimates (90-11)
C-5.4 Method for Calculating High Field Strength Contours (90-11)
C-5.5 Broadcaster's Responsibility (90-11)
C-5.6 List of Complaints Judged Not Valid by Industry Canada (90-11)

C-6   POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE TO TV FROM FM BROADCASTING 
      STATION ASSIGNMENTS (90-4)
C-6.1 Second Harmonic Interference (90-4)
C-6.2 Interference to Channel 6 from FM Broadcasting Stations 
      on Channels 201-220 (90-4)

C-7   TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION 
      MULTIPLEX OPERATION (90-4)

C-7.1 Preamble (90-4)
C-7.2 Definitions (90-4)
C-7.3 Multiplex Transmission Standards (90-4)

C-8 USE OF DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT (90-4)

C-9 DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS (90-4)

C-10 TRANSMITTER LOCATIONS (90-4)

SECTION D: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS REQUIRED WITH THE 
           APPLICATIONS FOR LOW POWER FM (LPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS (90-4)

D-1   APPLICATION PROCEDURE (90-11)
D-1.1 Preamble (90-4)
D-1.2 Requirements (90-4)
D-1.3 Notifying the Local Municipality (90-11)

D-2   ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS (90-4)
D-2.1 Summary Sheet (90-4)
D-2.2 Introduction (90-4)
D-2.3 Transmitting Channel (90-4)
D-2.4 Received Channel (90-4)
D-2.5 System Description and Design (90-4)
D-2.6 Equipment (90-4)
D-2.7 Service Area Calculations and Contour Map (90-4)
D-2.8 Predicted Quality of Service (90-4)

SECTION E: TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LOW POWER FM 
           STATIONS ON UNPROTECTED CHANNELS (90-4)

E-1   TECHNICAL CRITERIA (90-4)
E-1.1 Conditions (90-4)
E-1.2 Status with Regard to Interference to and from other Stations (90-4)
E-1.3 Choice of Frequency (90-4)
E-1.4 Separations Less than the Minimum (90-4)

E-2   QUALITY OF REBROADCAST SIGNAL (90-4)
E-3   COVERAGE PREDICTIONS (90-4)

SECTION F: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR 
           LOW POWER FM (VLPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS IN SMALL REMOTE 
           COMMUNITIES (90-4)

F-1   APPLICATION PROCEDURES (90-11)
F-1.1 Application Form (90-4)
F-1.2 Antenna Site and Height Clearance Form (90-4)
F-1.3 Notifying the Local Municipality (90-11)

SECTION G: TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT 
           OF VERY LOW POWER FM STATIONS (VLPFM) 
           IN SMALL REMOTE COMMUNITIES (90-4)

G-1   TECHNICAL CRITERIA (90-4)
G-1.1 Conditions (90-4)
G-1.2 Selection of Frequency (90-4)
G-1.3 Interference (90-4)
G-1.4 Service and Coverage Guidelines (90-4)

SECTION H: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING 
           APPLICATIONS FOR FM REBROADCASTING STATIONS (91-9) 

H-1   APPLICATION PROCEDURE (91-9) 
H-1.1 Preamble (91-9)
H-1.2 Conditions of Assignment (91-9)
H-1.3 Requirements (91-9)

APPENDIX 1 FIGURE 1: PROPAGATION CURVES F( 50,50) FOR FM (90-4)
           FIGURE 2: PROPAGATION CURVES F( 50,10) FOR FM (90-4)
           FIGURE 3: DEPRESSION ANGLE VERSUS DISTANCE (90-4)

APPENDIX 2 SUMMARY SHEET (90-4)

APPENDIX 3 ELEVATION DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL TOWER AND TRANSMITTING ANTENNA (90-4)

APPENDIX 4 FIGURE 1: CURVE OF EQUIVALENT PARAMETERS FOR LPFM (90-4)
           FIGURE 2: 0.5 mV/m CONTOUR CALCULATOR (90-4)
           FIGURE 3: 3 mV/m CONTOUR CALCULATOR (90-4)

APPENDIX 5 SYSTEMATIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING LPFM CHANNEL AVAILABILITY (90-4)

APPENDIX 6 PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE THE INTERFERENCE ZONE (90-4)

APPENDIX 7 PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FM TO TV CHANNEL 6 
           PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS (90-4)

APPENDIX 8 FM/NAV/COM COMPATIBILITY (Provisional) (91-2)

SECTION A INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS 

Within 320 km of the Canada-United States border, FM broadcasting 
allotments and assignments in Canada are subject to the terms of the 
"Revision of the Working Arrangement for Allotment and Assignment of FM 
Broadcasting Channels 201-300 Under the Canadian-U. S. A. FM 
Broadcasting Agreement of 1984". 

The working arrangement between the Federal Communications Commission 
(FCC) and Industry Canada (formerly Department of Communications) states 
the basis upon which both Administrations propose to consider responses 
to border area allotments and assignments. It also defines technical 
criteria for the notification of FM allotments and assignments. 
Acceptance of such allotments or assignments shall be obtained from the 
United States before authorization to implement the Canadian proposals 
is granted. 

The working arrangement also contains lists of the Canadian and U. S. A. 
allotments within their respective co-ordination zones. These lists are 
updated annually. 

It should be noted that applications for new assignments or changes in 
facilities of existing Canadian stations, within 320 km of the common 
border, have to meet both domestic and bilateral criteria. 

FM assignments other than low power and very low power stations (refer 
to Section C-1). 1 Form 16-2 is presently under review. The new title 
will refer to Broadcasting Certificate instead of TC & 2 OC. 


SECTION B PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS 
FOR FM BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ASSIGNMENTS 1 

B-1 APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS 

B-1.1 Requirements 

B-1.1.1 This Section outlines the departmental forms that shall be 
submitted when applying for a primary FM assignment. It also applies to 
applications where Subsidiary Communication Multiplex Operation (SCMO) 
is proposed. 

B-1.1.2 An application for a broadcasting certificate shall be made on 
departmental Form 16-2 "Application 2 for a Technical Construction and 
Operating Certificate for a New FM Broadcasting Transmitting Station". 
An application for changes to an existing station requires the 
submission of Form 16-5 "Application for Authority to Change the 
Facilities of an FM Broadcasting Transmitting Station". An application 
form for a broadcasting licence is obtainable from the Canadian Radio-
television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). The two 
applications shall be filed simultaneously. 

B-1.1.3 All necessary forms may be obtained from any departmental 
regional office (Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, Moncton) or 
from departmental headquarters in Ottawa. All addresses are provided in 
APPENDIX 1 of BPR-I. 

B-1.1.4 A complete technical submission shall include the following: 

 (a) two copies of the appropriate Form 16-2 or 16-5; 

 (b) five copies of an engineering brief in suitable loose-leaf binders 
     with identifying labels. The brief should be carefully prepared and 
     include all the detailed technical information as outlined in 
     Section B-2; 

 (c) two copies of the departmental Form 16-653 "Notice of Retention of 
     Broadcast Engineering Consultant" (refer to BPR-I, Section 1.2); 

  d) one reproducible copy of a map showing the pertinent field strength 
     contours (refer to BPR-I, Section 3) and another one showing the 
     "comparative contours" for the change of facilities. 


B-1.1.5 Three copies of Department of Transport (DOT) Form 26-0427 
entitled "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form" shall be completed. 
Topographic maps showing the elevation contours and the exact location 
of the antenna site as set forth in section 2 or BPR-I shall be 
attached. All shall be submitted directly to the Regional Office of DOT 
for clearance. A copy of DOT's letter of aeronautical approval shall be 
sent to Industry Canada. 

Form 26-0427 is obtainable from the Regional Office of the Department of 
Transport or Industry Canada. 


B-2 ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS 

The order of material presented in the engineering brief should be 
maintained as listed below to simplify processing in the Department. The 
metric system known as SI (SystŔme International) shall be used 
throughout the engineering brief. 

B-2.1 Title Page 

The title page should include the submission title, project or reference 
number, date, name and address of applicant, name of consultant and 
location of the station. The following parameters of the proposal shall 
also be listed: frequency, maximum and average effective radiated power 
(ERP) and effective antenna height above average terrain (EHAAT). 

B-2.2 Table of Contents (Index) 

To be prepared as cross-reference to pages and sections of the brief. 

B-2.3 Summary Sheet 

To be prepared as per APPENDIX 2 attached. 

B-2.4 Main Section of Brief 

B-2.4.1 Introduction - A general statement of the purpose of the brief 
in relation to the application, including the principal centre( s) to be 
served with the proposed grade of service. 

B-2.4.2 Discussion - There should be a discussion on the design 
considerations necessary to accomplish the applicant's objectives, 
including the location of site, and choice of frequency (here the 
consultant should be guided by the requirements set forth in Section C). 

B-2.4.3 Interference Analysis - An analysis of interference to related 
station( s) and allotment( s) is required as detailed in Sections C-1, 
C-5 and C-6. 

B-2.4.4 Assumptions and Sources of Information -List and explain all 
assumptions and sources of information used in compiling the engineering 
brief. 

B-2.4.5 Transmitter - The intent to use a type-approved transmitter( s) 
in accordance with Radio Standards Specification (RSS) No. 153 shall be 
made clear, either by specifying the make, model and type-approval 
number, or by a statement that the transmitter will be type-approved 
prior to on-air operation. The rated power of the transmitter shall be 
specified. 

B-2.4.6 Description of Antenna System - The following details are 
required: Antenna - Manufacturer, type, number of sections (if 
applicable) power gain and vertical radiation pattern. For directional 
antennas, the horizontal pattern is also required. 

 Transmission Line - Manufacturer, type, length in metres, and 
 efficiency. 

 Combiner - Manufacturer and operational characteristics. 

 Polarization - Horizontal, vertical, circular or elliptical 
 polarization as proposed. 

B-2.4.7 Ancillary Equipment - All other equipment shall be listed. 

B-2.4.8 Determination of the location of Service Contours - The location 
of service contours shall be determined by the method as detailed in 
Section C-3 and Section 3 of BPR-I. The contours to be determined are: 3 
mV/m (70 dBu) and 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu). 

In cases where proposed FM stations are located in areas of mountainous 
terrain or in the proximity of other natural obstacles, an additional 
analysis will be necessary to establish more realistic locations for the 
service contours. In preparing contour maps for these cases, the 
contours as determined from the standard method (refer to Section C-3) 
above should also be shown on the map with broken lines. 

B-2.4.9 Special Analyses and Undertakings Relative to Interference to 
Other Broadcast Services -Analyses shall be submitted with appropriate 
undertakings made in regard to all potential interference situations 
with other broadcasting stations as a result of the operation of the 
proposed FM facility. The following are some examples of interference 
possibilities with other broadcasting services which should be explored 
for each proposal: 

 (a) "Ghost" reflections of television signals from the new FM antenna 
     structure (refer to Section C-7, BPR-IV); 

 (b) distortion of AM radiation patterns by the new FM tower located in 
     the vicinity of an AM antenna array; 

 (c) isolation of AM, TV and FM transmissions, where such services are 
     co-located; 

 (d) interference to television service due to harmonics of the FM 
     operation (Section C-6.1); 

 (e) interference to TV channel 6 from broadcasting stations on FM 
     channels 201 to 220 (Section C-6.2); 

 (f) intermodulation with other broadcasting services in the vicinity of 
     the proposed station (Section C-5); 

 (g) assessment and control of maximum field strengths for FM 
     broadcasting stations: the 100 and 115 dBu contours shall be 
     determined and shown on a suitable map (Section C-5); 

 (h) the use of fourth adjacent channels allotted to the same centre 
     (Section C-1.6); (i) interference to low power and very low power 
     FM assignments. Although these are unprotected assignments, they 
     should be notified of potential interference to their service. Such 
     notification shall be made by letter to the affected broadcaster 
     with a copy forwarded to the Department. 

Note: The potential interference under (a) shall be assessed when the 
proposed antenna structure is in excess of 30 metres and within a 
distance of 500 metres of a TV station. 


B-2.5 Diagrams 

An elevation diagram of the structure and transmitting antenna as per 
APPENDIX 3 and a block diagram of major units of the transmitting system 
is to be included in the engineering brief. 

B-2.6 Vertical Radiation Pattern 

The vertical radiation pattern of the antenna (relative field versus 
degrees below the horizontal) shall be plotted from 0 to 90 E below the 
horizontal. 

B-2.7 Horizontal Radiation Pattern 

If a directional antenna is employed, the horizontal radiation pattern 
is required. True north and r. m. s. field shall also be clearly 
indicated on polar plots of the horizontal radiation pattern. When a 
directional pattern is proposed, the brief should contain a letter from 
the manufacturer stating that the proposed pattern can be achieved. If 
the application is approved, the pattern shall be certified by means of 
range tests, scale-modelling or other recognized engineering methods. 
The margin of accuracy shall also be provided. 

Note: Title blocks shall be placed on radiation patterns for directional 
antenna systems since in some instances, for areas along the Canada-U. 
S. A. border, it may be necessary to submit this material separately 
when notifying the assignment to the U. S. Federal Communications 
Commission (FCC). The title block shall include the identification of 
the station, frequency, maximum and average ERP and date. 

B-2.8 Profiles of Ground Elevation 

For the preparation of profile radials, refer to "Contour Determination" 
in Section C-3. 


B-2.9 Maps 

B-2.9.1 A map (scale 1: 50,000) shall be provided with the proposed 
antenna site marked thereon and its geographical co-ordinates (latitude 
and longitude) shown. 

B-2.9.2 A map showing the service area contours as required in Section 
B-2.4.8, shall be provided. For further details concerning the 
preparation of maps for engineering briefs, refer to Section 3 
"Preparation of Field Strength Contour Maps" in the BPR-I. 


B-3 APPLICATIONS FOR STEREOPHONIC BROADCASTING 

Applications proposing stereophonic transmission shall include a signed 
statement by the consultant, that the equipment and installation will 
meet the standards for stereophonic broadcasting described in Radio 
Standards Specification (RSS) No. 153. 


B-4 APPLICATIONS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEX OPERATION (SCMO) 

B-4.1 Application Requirements 

An FM broadcasting undertaking wishing to initiate Subsidiary 
Communication Multiplex Operations (SCMO) shall submit the following 
information to the Department for an amendment to the broadcasting 
certificate. 

B-4.1.1 A description of the equipment which is proposed for subsidiary 
communication transmissions, including: 

 (a) a description of the programme source and the method of modulating 
     the multiplex subcarrier( s); 

 (b) the frequency or frequencies of the multiplex subcarrier(s); 

 (c) a description of the means used to ensure that the technical 
     requirements are being adequately met; 


B-4.1.2 A description of the modifications necessary to the FM 
transmitter to effect the multiplex transmissions; 

B-4.1.3 The method and equipment used for monitoring the transmissions; 

B-4.1.4 A signed statement by a consultant that the proposed facilities 
will meet the standards set forth in Section C-7 and in Radio Standards 
Specification (RSS) No. 153. 


B-5 DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT 

Although the Department at present does not intend to regulate the use 
of the Dolby noise reduction equipment, it wishes to remain aware of the 
extent of its use. Accordingly, a broadcasting station which installs 
the Dolby equipment shall notify the Department. Such notification shall 
be made by letter to the Director, Broadcast Applications Engineering 
with a copy forwarded to the appropriate regional office. 


B-6 TECHNICAL OPERATION OF BROADCAST TRANSMITTER PLANTS 

A description of the technical equipment in compliance with the minimum 
requirements specified in Section 5. 3 of BPR-I shall be submitted at 
the latest prior to on-air tests for the approved facility. If 
unattended operation is proposed, a statement that the unattended 
operation meets the minimum requirements of Section 5.3 of BPR-I is 
required. BPR-III-B-11 90-4 


B-7 ON-AIR TESTING PROCEDURE 

When the construction of the authorized facilities is complete, notice 
of on-air testing shall be given to the District Manager at least three 
weeks (unless otherwise specified in the letter of authority) prior to 
transmission tests. Departmental permission from the District Office is 
required for testing. 

During on-air tests, identification of the station shall be made 
preferably at fifteen minute intervals, giving as a minimum the call 
sign, frequency and location of the station. In the case of 
rebroadcasting stations without capability to originate the 
aforementioned information, the broadcaster will be responsible for 
making the public aware that the new station is being tested. As an 
example, a notice could be placed in the local press which would explain 
that the broadcaster should be contacted in the event of interference 
difficulties that might develop. The broadcaster shall implement any 
instruction given by departmental representatives at the district, 
regional or headquarters level. 

The required scope and duration of such on-air emission tests will 
depend to a large extent on the potential for interference that might be 
caused to existing broadcasting stations or other radio services. Such 
details of the testing shall be agreed upon with the local District 
Manager shortly after the issuance of the letter of authority. 

Following successful on-air tests, the applicant's consultant shall 
certify to Industry Canada that the station is ready to commence 
operation in accordance with the approved technical submission and 
request permission to commence normal broadcasting schedule. 


B-8 FM/NAV/COM COMPATIBILITY 

B-8.1 Preamble 

Aeronautical radio-navigation and communications (NAV/COM) Services in 
North America are assigned in the frequency band 108 -137 MHz, upper 
adjacent to the FM band. As a result, there exists a potential for 
interference to these aeronautical services. 

B-8.2 Types of Interference Mechanisms 

B-8.2.1 Type A interference -normally radiated by FM stations. 

 (a) Type A -spurious emissions generated by a single transmitter or 
     intermodulation products 1 generated by multiplexed transmitters, 
     falling in the aeronautical frequency bands. 

 (b) Type A -FM sideband energy falling in the aeronautical frequency 
     bands (only from FM 2 transmitters operating near 108 MHz). 


B-8.2.2 Type B interference - normally generated in the aeronautical 
receiver. 

 (a) Type B - intermodulation generated as a result of two or more FM 
     signals whose product falls 1 on a wanted RF channel in use by the 
     aeronautical receiver. Note that at least one FM signal must be 
     large enough to drive the receiver into non-linearity. 

 (b) Type B - overload of the RF section of an aeronautical receiver due 
     to one or more FM signals, 2 leading to desensitization. 

Protection criteria are found in APPENDIX 8. 


B-8.3 Interference Analysis 

B-8.3.1 Each application for an FM transmitting undertaking (primary or 
secondary assignment) is subject to an FM/NAV/COM compatibility 
analysis. Depending on the result, the following may take place: 

 (a) if no interference is predicted, it is presumed that compatibility 
     exists, 

 (b) if the potential for interference is low, a conditional technical 
     acceptance is granted subject to: 

  - monitoring during on-air testing of the station, or occasionally, 

  - flight tests during on- air testing of a station in complex 
    electromagnetic environments, 

 (c) if the potential for interference is high, the engineering brief is 
     considered not acceptable and the application is returned. 


B-8.3.2 When conditional technical acceptance is given, the applicant is 
notified accordingly. If the application is approved by the CRTC (also 
conditionally), the letter of authority issued by Industry Canada will 
identify the nature of the required tests. It will also specify the 
period required as notice to the Industry canada before the on-air 
testing takes place. Adherence to the terms of the notice is mandatory. 
Monitoring may be undertaken by this Department or the Department of 
Transport or both. Flight tests are conducted by both Industry Canada 
and DOT. 

Testing is conducted under the supervision of Industry Canada or DOT or 
both and broadcasters shall co-operate fully. 

B-8.3.3 The FM station shall test at the authorized parametres and pass 
the monitoring and/or flight tests before it is authorized to start 
normal scheduled broadcasting. However, if interference is detected, 
remedial measures shall be taken to eliminate the interference. If 
interference is not eliminated, authority for scheduled on-air 
broadcasting will be denied. 

B-8.3.4 If interference to NAV/COM facilities is caused by the FM 
station during scheduled on-air broadcasting, the holder of the 
broadcasting certificate will take remedial measures to eliminate the 
interference, even to the extent of closing down the station, if so 
requested by Industry Canada. 


B-8.4 Interference Prediction Model 

At present, compatibility analyses are undertaken by departmental staff. 
Interpretation of the results is also accomplished by staff of Industry 
Canada and DOT. Protection criteria are not final and work on this 
aspect is continuing at the international level, under the umbrella of 
the ITU-R. Canada is an active participant. 

Industry Canada has developed a refined interference prediction method. 
This method would serve as a design tool for FM and aeronautical 
frequency assignments. A version of the software, designed for personal 
computers, will be offered to broadcast engineering consultants. 


SECTION C TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FM 
BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ALLOTMENTS 

C-1 ALLOTMENT PRINCIPLES 

This Section pertains to the technical requirements for the allotment 
and protection of FM channels and for the prediction of coverage for FM 
broadcasting stations in Canada. 

C-1.1 Definitions 

C-1.1.1 Allocation 

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) uses the word 
'allocation' in reference to the provision of a band of frequencies for 
a particular purpose or service. 

C-1.1.2 Allotment 

An 'allotment' is the provision of a specific channel for a particular 
community. A list of current Canadian allotments is published by 
Industry Canada. 

C-1.1.3 Assignment 

An 'assignment' is the authorized use of an allotment by an FM station. 

C-1.1.4 Primary Assignment 

A primary assignment is a protected assignment authorized or operating 
on an allotment with one of the classes listed in Section C-1.1.14, i. 
e., A1, A, B, C1 or C. 

C-1.1.5 Secondary Assignment 

A secondary assignment is an unprotected assignment authorized or 
operating on a channel in accordance with Sections E or G, i. e., LPFM 
or VLPFM. 

C-1.1.6 Effective Radiated Power (ERP) 

The effective radiated power (ERP) is the product of the transmitter 
output power, the transmission line (and combiner) efficiency and the 
power gain of the antenna relative to a half-wave dipole. 

C-1.1.7 Effective Height of the Antenna above Average Terrain (EHAAT) 

The effective height of the antenna above average terrain (EHAAT) is the 
average of the antenna heights above the average terrain (HAATs) for 
eight radials spaced every 45 degrees of azimuth starting with true 
north. The height of the antenna above average terrain (HAAT) is the 
height of the centre of radiation of the antenna above the average 
elevation of the terrain between 3 to 16 km from the antenna for each 
radial. 

C-1.1.8 Maximum Permissible Parameters 

Maximum permissible parameters are the values of the maximum ERP and the 
associated EHAAT for the four classes of stations as listed in Sections 
C-1.1.14 and C-1.1.17. 

C-1.1.9 Operating Parameters 

The operating parameters are the values of the ERP and EHAAT at which an 
FM station is authorized to operate. 

C-1.1.10 Limited Allotment 

A limited allotment is a channel on which an FM station, for purposes of 
protection, is required to operate with less than maximum parameters. A 
limitation may apply in one or more directions. 

C-1.1.11 Unlimited Allotment 

An unlimited allotment is a channel on which a station may operate with 
maximum parameters. Any allotment, on which a station could operate with 
maximum parameters by virtue of spacing, may qualify as an unlimited 
allotment and may be co-ordinated as such. 

C. 1.1.12 Antenna Pattern 

For horizontal non-directional patterns, variations shall be contained 
within the  2 dB limit from the average value (perfect circle). If 
these limits are exceeded, the pattern is considered directional. 

The calculated 1 mV/m contour remains at the same location when 
equivalent parameters are used. 3 BPR-III-C-3 90-4 

C-1.1.13 FM Channels 

FM broadcast channels are allotted in the band 88 to 108 MHz with 200 
kHz spacing. The channel center frequencies begin at 88.1 MHz (Channel 
201) and continue in successive steps up to and including 107.9 MHz 
(Channel 300). In Canada channels 201-220 inclusive are designated for 
non-commercial, educational broadcasting undertakings (there is no such 
designation for LPFM and VLPFM undertakings). The Department requests 
that the CRTC determine whether an applicant qualifies under this 
designation. 

C-1.1.14 Classification and Maximum Permissible Parameters of Allotments 
and Assignments 

The class of an FM channel is defined by the maximum permissible ERP and 
the associated EHAAT. The FM classes are as follows: 

 Class A1: a maximum ERP or  250 W with an EHAAT of 100 metres. 
 Class A:  a maximum ERP of   3 kW with an EHAAT of 100 metres. 
 Class B:  a maximum ERP of  50 kW with an EHAAT of 150 metres. 
 Class C1: a maximum ERP of 100 kW with an EHAAT of 300 metres. 
 Class C:  a maximum ERP of 100 kW with an EHAAT of 600 metres. 

The maximum ERP is calculated using the maximum value of radiation from 
the antenna in the plane of maximum radiation and in the direction of 
maximum radiation for directional antennas. 

An assignment made on an allotment having any of the above class 
designations is considered to be a "primary" assignment. An unprotected 
assignment made on an allotment having any of the above class 
designation is considered a secondary assignment. 

C-1.1.15 Minimum Operating Parameters 

The minimum operating parameters of a class are the lower limits of the 
operating parameters allowed for that class, and they are as follows: 

      Class A1: an ERP of  51 W with no minimum on EHAAT. 
       Class A: an ERP of 251 W with an EHAAT of 100 metres or equivalent
       Class B: an ERP of  3 kW with an EHAAT of 150 metres or equivalent
 Class C or C1: an ERP of 20 kW with an EHAAT of 300 metres or equivalent

For directional antenna patterns, the ERP values above relate to the 
maximum value of the pattern. Unless exceptional circumstances warrant 
it, an FM assignment should be designed to operate preferably above the 
minima defined in this paragraph. 

The calculated 1 mV/m contour remains at the same location when 
equivalent parameters are used. 

C-1.1.16 Antenna Height and Power Equivalence 

Where antenna heights exceed the values shown in C-1.1.14, the effective 
radiated power shall be reduced to provide equivalence with the maximum 
or other permissible parameters. In addition, where 4 applicable, it is 
required that the interference zone for equivalent parameters not exceed 
that determined by the F( 50,10) propagation curves using the maximum or 
other permissible parameters. 

Equivalence requires that the 1 mV/m contour remains at the same 
location. In calculating equivalence, the EHAAT should be used to 
determine the permissible ERP. Note that equivalence based on individual 
HAATs in the eight standard azimuths is not acceptable. Where a 
limitation is concerned, the HAAT in the pertinent direction (either 
derived from a terrain profile in the standard manner or interpolated 
from the two adjacent standard HAATs) should be used to determine the 
permissible ERP. 

C-1.1.17 Permissible Interference to Unassigned Allotments Due to Short 
Spacing 

Proposed assignments may not produce an interference area within the 
following radii of unassigned allotments, assuming that the allotment 
would be assigned at maximum parameters for its class: 

    Class A1: a distance of 12 km. 
    Class A:  a distance of 24 km. 
    Class B:  a distance of 50 km. 
    Class C1: a distance of 72 km. 
    Class C:  a distance of 86 km. 

The above should not be interpreted as a reduction in the 0.5 mV/m 
contour to the reduced radii for unassigned allotments. Rather, when 
making an interference analysis (as per APPENDIX 6), the interference 
area and the service contour at the reduced extension should be 
tangential. 

If an unassigned short-spaced allotment is already limited and the 0.5 
mV/m contour extends beyond the above distances, interference areas are 
permitted to distances down to the values outlined above. However, if 
the 0.5 mV/m contour extends less than the above radii, no further 
interference is permitted. 

Any populated area defined as city, town, locality etc. as per Energy, 
Mines and Resources Canada 5 maps. 

C-1.1.18 Service Contours and Coverage Requirements 

The service contours of a primary FM assignment are the 0.5 mV/m (54 
dBu) and 3 mV/m (70 dBu) contours. The distance from the station to the 
service contours is determined using the F( 50,50) curves in Figure 1 of 
the APPENDIX 1 and Section C-3 on contour determination. 

 (a) A minimum field strength of 3 mV/m is required for satisfactory 
     service to principal target centres . If however, the service 
     requirements are for a regional station and the applicant 5 
     specifically states that this is the purpose of the station, the 3 
     mV/m contour is not required.
 (b) A minimum field strength of 0.5 mV/m is required for satisfactory 
     service to secondary target centres , where the reception is 
     achieved by outdoor receiving antennas. For a regional station, 5 
     the 0.5 mV/m contour is the only contour required for service. 

The dBu is the field strength in dB above one microvolt per metre (1uV/m). 

C-1.1.19 Protected Contour 

The protected contour of a primary FM assignment is the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) 
contour. This contour is protected up to the maximum distances indicated in 
Section C-1.2.2 for unlimited allotments. When the FM assignment uses a 
limited allotment, protection is defined by the limitation( s). Other 
conditions which can limit the distance to the protected contour are given 
in Sections C-1.1.17 and C-1.2. 

C-1.1.20 Interfering Signal Contour 

The interfering signal contour of a primary FM assignment is the maximum 
signal value permitted at the protected contours of other allotments and 
assignments (refer to Section C-1.3). The distance to the interference 
contour is determined using the F( 50,10) curves of Figure 2 of the APPENDIX 
1. For distances less than 15 km, the F( 50,50) curves of Figure 1 may be 
used. Note that when antenna beam tilt is proposed, the ERP in the plane of 
tilt shall be used. 

C-1.1.21 Antenna Beam Tilt (Electrical and Mechanical) 

Antenna beam tilt is the inclination in degrees of the horizontal radiation 
pattern of the antenna which causes the maximum radiation to occur at an 
angle below the horizontal plane. The beam tilt may be achieved by 
mechanical or electrical means. The maximum permissible ERP, as defined in 
C-1.1.14 and C-1.1.16 shall not be exceeded in either the horizontal or tilt 
planes. 

Based on an ERP of 100 kW and an EHAAT of 450 metres. 

C-1.1.22 Polarization 

The polarization of the radiated signal is the orientation of the electric 
component of the electromagnetic field as radiated from the transmitting 
antenna. Circular polarization is normally used, however, horizontal, 
vertical or elliptical polarization may also be used. Where vertical 
polarization only is used, justification shall be provided. In any plane of 
polarization the ERP shall not exceed that defined in C-1.1.14 and C-1.1.16. 

C-1.1.23 Distances to Various Contours 

In this Procedure, the distances to various contours, including service, 
interfering or equivalence contours, can be calculated with the F( 50,50) 
and F( 50,10) curves of APPENDIX 1 or with the F50M software. However, if 
there is a disagreement between the two methods, the results obtained with 
the F50M software will prevail. 

C-1.2 Allotment Principles (Domestic) 

(For international channel relationships refer to; "Working Arrangement for 
Allotment and Assignment of FM Broadcast Channels 201-300"). 

C-1.2.1 Subject to the provisions listed in this Section, FM allotments are 
protected to their 0.5 mV/m contour as determined by the F( 50, 50) 
propagation curves of Figure 1 of APPENDIX 1 together with the ERP and the 
HAAT for each of the eight radials. For very irregular terrain, the local 
topography may be taken into account in calculating the contour. 

C-1.2.2 Protection is only afforded to land areas and shall not extend 
beyond the following distances from the transmitting site; 

   Class Distance (km) Field Strength 
      A1     18        0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) 
      A      33        0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) 
      B      65        0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) 
      C1     86        0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) 
      C      97        0.5 mV/m (54 dBu)

Class C channels, whose 0.5 mV/m contour extends beyond 97 km, are 
permitted if protection to related assignments and allotments is provided. 

C-1.2.3 The protected contour of an unoccupied limited allotment is 
determined using the limited parameters in all directions or in the 
direction( s) of limitation where applicable. Protection should be provided 
on the basis of a practical directional antenna meeting the limitation( s). 

C-1.2.4 Where the protected contour extends beyond the boundary of the 
country in which the allotment is located, protection will be provided only 
to land areas, including islands, lying within that country. In this case, 
overlap of the interfering and the protected service contours may be 
acceptable provided that the interference zone does not fall within these 
areas. APPENDIX 6 describes the procedure to determine the interference 
zone. 


C-1.3 Protection Ratios and Permissible Interfering Signals 

C-1.3.1 Protection ratios and the corresponding permissible interfering 
field strength levels (F( 50,10)) at the protected contour of another 
frequency related assignment or allotment are given in the following table: 

D/U Protection 

Channel relationship Ratio (dB) Field strength 
  Co-channel            20       0.05 mV/m (34 dBu) 
  First adjacent         6       0.25 mV/m (48 dBu) 
  Second adjacent      -20       5.00 mV/m (74 dBu) 
  Third adjacent       -40      50.00 mV/m (94 dBu) 


C-1.4 Separation Distances Between Co-channel and Adjacent Channel 
Allotments 

The following table specifies the minimum separation distances in kilometres 
for the five classes of channel assignments, using the protected contour 
levels as shown in Section C-1.2 and the interfering signal levels shown in 
Section C-1. 3 (the appropriate contours for Class C channels are based on 
an ERP of 100 kW and an EHAAT of 450 metres). 

Class A1 
  Co-Channel    78 
     200 kHz    45 
     400 kHz    24 
     600 kHz    20 
 10.6/10.8 MHz  4 

Class A 
   Co-Channel 117 132 
       200 kHz 69  85 
       400 kHz 39  45 
       600 kHz 35  37 
 10.6/10.8 MHz  6   8 


Class B 
   Co-Channel   190 206 237 
      200 kHz   117 132 164 
      400 kHz    71  76  94 
      600 kHz    67  69  74 
 10.6/10.8 MHz  14  16  24 

Class C1 
   Co-Channel   224  239  271  292 
      200 kHz   148  164  195  217 
      400 kHz    92   98  115  134 
      600 kHz    88   90   95  101 
 10.6/10.8 MHz  26   32   40   48 

Class C 
    Co-channel  238  254  286  307  318 
       200 kHz  167  182  214  235  246 
       400 kHz  103  109  126  144  155 
       600 kHz   99  102  106  111  115 
 10.6/10,8 MHz  26   32   40   48   48 

Relationship Class A1 Class A Class B Class C1 Class C 


TABLE C-1: Table of Minimum Separation Distances (km) 

C-1.5 Short Spaced Allotments and Assignments 

C-1.5.1 Allotments and assignments in the Plan which do not meet the Table 
of Minimum Separation Distances may be subject to an interference zone 
within their 0.5 mV/m contour (maximum parameter conditions). Interference 
zones should be drawn as shown in APPENDIX 6 for the following cases: 

 (a) for an allotment or an assignment, the protected contour should be 
     determined using the co-ordinates shown in the Canadian FM Broadcasting 
     Allotment Plan and should be in accordance with Section C-1.2.2; 

 (b) where limitations are indicated in the Plan, limited parameters should 
     be used in the pertinent direction( s) instead of maximum permissible 
     parameters. 

Terrain factors may be considered where the intervening terrain justifies 
this use. Any recognized engineering method may be used. However, in case of 
conflict, the Department will resolve the matter by using the terrain 
program in its data base. 

The reverse process shall also be covered in the engineering brief i. e. the 
interference zone( s) from the related allotment( s) or assignment( s) shall 
be shown as a hatched area. 

C-1.5.2 For new or changed assignments, based on a short spaced allotment in 
the Plan, the proposal should be designed to limit interference. Where the 
related allotment is: 

 (a) unassigned-protection is normally required to the maximum extent of the 
0.5 mV/m contour for its class or in accordance with Section C-1.5.1 above; 

 (b) assigned-protection as in C-1.5.1 above is required. An increase in 
interference zone may be proposed only if both parties are in agreement 
(refer to Section C-1.5.4 for procedural details). In such cases, the 
Department may refer the issue to the CRTC for Public Hearing, or deny the 
application based on spectrum management consideration. 

The applicant should send the letter and the copy of the brief early enough 
so that the affected licensee 7 can reply at the latest 10 days before the 
start of the Public Hearing. Should the thirty-day response time fall beyond 
this deadline, the Department will not send technical comments to the CRTC. 
It is to be noted that, in this case, the applicant is taking the risk of 
having the application withdrawn and assumes the responsibility for it. 

C-1.5.3 For proposed short spaced assignments or allotments, predicated on 
proposed channels which are not in the Plan and, where the related allotment 
is: 

 (a) unassigned-protection is normally required to the maximum extent of the 
     0.5 mV/m contour for its class. However, protection in accordance with 
     Section C-1.1.17 may be proposed provided it is accompanied by a study 
     indicating that the objective cannot be met by other less drastic 
     measures such as a directional antenna, limitation, etc.; 

 (b) assigned-protection is normally required to the maximum extent of the 
     0.5 mV/m contour for its class. However, if an interference zone is 
     proposed, the agreement of the affected licensee shall be obtained 
     (refer to Sections C-1.5.4 and C-1.5.5 for procedural details). 

C-1.5.4 

 (a) In all above cases, interference zones that fall over water may be 
     disregarded. 

 (b) Where an allotment or assignment is proposed to be limited, the 
     limitation is calculated by determining the allowable ERP and 
     associated HAAT which provide protection to the related allotment or 
     assignment. Normally, the associated HAAT is calculated by linear 
     interpolation between the HAATs of the standard radials adjacent to the 
     pertinent radial. If a disagreement exists in the calculation of this 
     HAAT due to irregular intervening terrain, the terrain profile shall be 
     as determined by the Department. 

C-1.5.5 

 (a) In all cases of short-spacing(s) to an assignment(s), the applicant 
     shall send a copy of the engineering brief with a covering letter to 
     the affected station(s) licensee(s), preferably at the date of filing 
     the application or immediately after the CRTC has issued a Notice of 
     Public Hearing.  A copy of this letter and the postal or messenger 
     receipt, as proof of delivery, shall be sent to the Department. The 
     letter shall advise the licensee of the proposed short-spacing and 
     interference zone where applicable, and shall emphasize that the 
     licensee's comments shall be submitted to the Department no later than 
     thirty days after receipt of engineering brief. Where the affected 
     licensee offers an objection, the application may not be accepted by 
     the Department(refer to paragraph (b) below). If no reply is received 
     within the specified period, the Department will assume that the 
     affected licensee agrees with the proposal. 

 (b) The affected licensee shall use the criteria contained herein together 
     with established engineering practices in the analysis the licensee 
     will conduct. The Department will review the licensee's response from a 
     technical point of view and will reserve the right to make an 
     independent decision concerning the disposition of the application. 

C-1.6 Channels Separated by 800 kHz 

C-1.6.1 For FM stations separated by 800 kHz, and operating in the same 
area, the limited selectivity of some nearby receivers can cause a potential 
interference problem. It is therefore recommended that such stations be co-
located or near co-located, in order to equalize the desired to undesired 
field strength ratios at all receiving locations. 

C-1.6.2 If an incoming station is located such that its calculated 100 dBu 
contour intercepts or overlaps the 80 dBu contour of another existing 
station, an analysis shall be made for those potential interference areas 
where the field strength difference exceeds 20 dB. The reverse interference 
process should also be covered in the engineering brief. 

The applicant should send the letter and the copy of the brief early enough 
so that the affected licensee 8 can reply at the latest 10 days before the 
start of the Public Hearing. Should the thirty-day response time fall beyond 
this deadline, the Department will not send technical comments to the CRTC. 
It is to be noted that, in this case, the applicant is taking the risk of 
having the application withdrawn and assumes the responsibility for it. 

C-1.6.3 Where the analysis results in an area of potential interference, the 
population within the area shall be determined and a justification for the 
site selected shall appear in the engineering brief. In addition, the 
applicant shall send a copy of the engineering brief together with a 
covering letter to the affected station licensee, preferably at the date of 
filing the application or immediately after the CRTC hasissued a Notice of 
Public Hearing . A copy of this letter 8 and the postal or messenger 
receipt, as proof of the delivery, shall be sent to the Department. The 
letter shall advise the licensee of the proposed station and the resulting 
potential for reception interference. It shall also emphasize that any 
representations the licensee might wish to make to the Department shall be 
submitted no later than thirty days after receipt the engineering brief. 
Where the affected licensee offers an objection, the application may be 
returned by the Department. However, the Department reserves the right to 
make an independent decision concerning the disposition of the application. 
If no reply is received within the specified period, the Department will 
assume that the affected licensee agrees with the proposal. 

The licensees of affected low power and very low power stations shall also 
be notified. 

C-2 CHANGES TO THE TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS 

When an FM service is being contemplated for a particular area and the 
Canadian FM Broadcasting Allotment Plan does not contain a suitable 
unoccupied allotment, changes to the allotment plan may be proposed by an 
applicant. 

C-2.1 Types of Changes 

The following types of changes are envisaged, separately or in combination, 
concerning the addition or reclassification of an allotment: 

 (a) adding or changing an allotment without affecting any other allotment; 

 (b) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of short spacing an 
     existing allotment or assignment, two cases may occur; the short-
     spacing and its resulting interference may be accepted without 
     limitations or a channel limitation may be required to avoid 
     interference. Where an assignment is concerned, the licensee's comments 
     on the proposed limitation shall be sought (refer to Section C-2.3.3). 
     Where an allotment is concerned, refer to Section C-1.1.17; 

 (c) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of reclassifying an 
     existing allotment or assignment. Where the reclassification of an 
     assignment is proposed, the licensee's comments on the proposed 
     reclassification shall be sought (refer to Section C-2.3.3); 

 (d) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of deleting an existing 
     allotment; 

 (e) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of changing the 
     frequency of an allotment or an assignment, in the latter case the 
     licensee's agreement shall be obtained (refer to Section C-2.3.3); and 

 (f) moving an allotment to an area and replacing the shifted allotment with 
     a suitable replacement. 

Note: The lowering of the class of existing allotments should be avoided 
unless exceptional circumstances warrant it. 

The applicant should send the letter and the copy of the brief early enough 
so that the affected licensee 9 can reply at the latest 10 days before the 
start of the Public Hearing. Should the thirty-day response time fall beyond 
this deadline, the Department will not send technical comments to the CRTC. 
It is to be noted that, in this case, the applicant is taking the risk of 
having the application withdrawn and assumes the responsibility for it. 


C-2.2 Impact on the Plan 

It is noted that some of the changes in C-2.1 may have a positive impact on 
the Plan in one area but a negative impact in another area. If the 
Department accepts the changes, it would report to the CRTC on the technical 
aspects of the changes and their impact on the provisions of the Plan 
provided the proposal is based on a complete application. These changes 
would be considered conditionally technically acceptable pending a decision 
by the CRTC. Any changes to the Plan that may be required as the result of 
such applications would not be made until the Department declares them 
technically acceptable and the CRTC approves the application. 

C-2.3 Application Requirements 

C-2.3.1 When an application for a new FM undertaking requires modifications 
to the Plan, the, applicant may consult with the Department regarding these 
modifications prior to the formal filing of an application. Where pertinent, 
the study shall show that the coverage objective of the proposal cannot be 
achieved by less drastic measures such as through the use of a limited 
allotment and/or directional antenna, etc. 

C-2.3.2 Any application proposing to change the frequency of an assignment 
will be found to be incomplete unless it is accompanied by proof that the 
station affected agrees to the change. 

C-2.3.3 Applicants proposing to limit or reclassify a channel occupied by an 
assignment shall send a copy of the engineering brief, with a covering 
letter, to the licensee of the affected station, preferably at the date of 
filing the application or immediately after the CRTC has issued a Notice of 
Public Hearing . A copy of this letter and the 9 postal or messenger 
receipt, as proof of the delivery, shall be sent to the Department. The 
letter shall advise the licensee of the proposed limitation or 
reclassification and shall emphasize that any representations the licensee 
may wish to make to the Department shall be submitted no later than thirty 
days after receipt of the engineering brief. Where the affected licensee 
offers an objection, the application may be returned by the Department. 
However, the Department reserves the right to make an independent decision 
concerning the disposition of the application. If no reply is received 
within the specified period, it will be assumed that there is no objection. 

C-2.3.4 An applicant may accept interference within the station's 0.5 mV/m 
contour from an existing assignment or from a future assignment on a 
existing allotment provided that the engineering brief states that the 
applicant does not intend to serve the affected area. The extent of the 
interference area shall be calculated in accordance with APPENDIX 6 and 
shall be shown as a hatched area on the proposed station's coverage map. 

C-2.4 Incompatibilities 

In all of the cases described in C-2.1, problems can arise when changes to 
the Plan proposed by one applicant are not compatible with changes proposed 
by another applicant. It should be noted that incompatibilities can occur 
even when the proposed service areas are geographically well separated. The 
Department encourages applicants to co-operate in the search for an early 
solution to problems of incompatibility. In this regard, the Department 
will, without divulging the details of the proposed changes, make any 
incompatibilities known to each of the applicants involved, urging their 
resolution prior to consideration of the applications by the CRTC. 

C-2.5 Allotment Planning 

C-2.5.1 Applications for modifications to the Canadian FM Broadcasting 
Allotment Plan may be made with, or independently from an application for an 
assignment. In either case, documentation in respect to the allotment 
change( s) shall be submitted. 

C-2.5.2 An assignment does not convey a right, real or implied, to a station 
licensee for continued protection of the licensee's class of station if the 
operating parameters fall into a lower class. In such cases, the assignment 
may be reduced to a lower class to facilitate additional allotments and 
assignments. 

C-2.5.3 The Department may make changes to the Canadian FM Broadcasting 
Allotment Plan which are independent of any application received. It will 
also take independent decisions, based on technical considerations, in its 
role as spectrum manager. 


C-3 CONTOUR DETERMINATION 

C-3.1 Introduction 

All applications for new stations or for changes to an existing antenna or 
transmitter are required to show the service contours. For determining the 
service area of a broadcast station, two field strength contours are 
required. These are the 0.5 mV/m and 3 mV/m contours which indicate the 
approximate extent of coverage over average terrain in the absence of 
interference from other FM stations. Under actual conditions, the true 
coverage may vary greatly from these estimates because the terrain over any 
specific path is expected to be different from the average terrain on which 
the propagation curves are based. 

C-3.2 Prediction of Coverage 

C-3.2.1 Details of the calculations and pertinent data for determining the 
field strength contours are to be presented in the engineering brief as 
follows: 

 (a) the calculation of the ERP; 

 (b) the sources of information (such as maps) for arriving at the HAATs; 

 (c) if in unique circumstances, such as locations in mountainous terrain, a 
     method other than that outlined herein is used for determining the 
     service area contours, a detailed analysis with profile data should be 
     included; 

 (d) a table shall be included as illustrated in the following example: 

 Radial Azimuth ERP HAAT Distance to Distance to 
 No. (deg.) (kW) (metres) 3 mV/m 0.5 mV/m 
 Contour (km) Contour (km) 

 1 0 20 191 32 64 
 2 45 20 207 34 64 
 3 90 20 232 35 66 
 4 135 20 336 43 81 
 5 180 20 282 39 72 
 6 225 20 200 32 64 
 7 270 20 311 40 76 
 8 315 20 296 40 74 

C-3.2.2 The table should be based on eight radials taken at 45 E intervals 
from true north to determine the HAATs and the EHAAT. For each radial, a 
profile graph shall be drawn extending outward from the proposed site for a 
distance of 16 km, even if the radial extends beyond the international 
border. The eight graphs should be plotted separately, on rectangular co-
ordinate paper with the distance in kilometres as the abscissa and the 
elevation in metres above mean sea level as the ordinate. The graph should 
reflect the topography of the profile accurately. 

C-3.2.3 The average elevation above sea level of the 13 km distance between 
3 and 16 kilometres from the antenna site should be determined. This may be 
obtained by using a planimeter, by obtaining the median elevation (that 
exceeded for 50 % of the distance) in sectors and averaging those values or 
by averaging a large number of equally spaced points. The number of points 
required and their spacing should allow an adequate representation of the 
terrain. Conflict situations will be resolved by the Department using the 
"point-to-point" prediction method. 

C-3.2.4 The HAAT is defined as the height of the antenna centre of radiation 
above sea level minus the average terrain elevation calculated above. 
However, when a part of the 3 to 16 km portion of a radial extends over 
large bodies of water or over the territory of the United States, only that 
part of the radial extending from the 3 km sector to the outermost portion 
of land area within Canada covered by the radial shall be employed in the 
computation of HAAT. 

C-3.2.5 Additional radials shall be included relative to the principal 
centre( s) be served where desirable and, particularly in cases of rough 
terrain. This is done even if the centre under consideration is more than 16 
km from the antenna site. However, the additional radials should not be 
included in the determination of the station's EHAAT. 

C-3.2.6 The following data is to be indicated for each radial graph: 

  (a) radial number and azimuth, 

  (b) height of antenna above sea level, 

  (c) average elevation of terrain for the particular radial, 

  (d) HAAT for the radial. 


C-3.2.7 In predicting the distances to the field strength contours, the F( 
50,50) curves of APPENDIX 1 should be used. The F( 50,50) curves represent 
the field strength at 9.1 m above ground which is exceeded for 50 % of the 
time at 50 % of the locations as measured in decibels above one microvolt 
per metre. The curves are based on an effective power of one kilowatt 
radiated from a half-wave dipole in free space, which produces an 
unattenuated field strength at one kilometre of about 107 dB above one 
microvolt per metre (221.8 millivolts per metre). To use the curves for 
other powers, the sliding scale associated with the curves should be used as 
the ordinate scale. This sliding scale is placed on the curves with the 
appropriate gradation for power on the horizontal 40 dB line. The right edge 
of this scale is placed in line with the appropriate antenna height 
gradations, the curves then become direct reading (in ÁV/m and in dB above 
1 ÁV/m) for the selected ERP and HAAT. Where the intersecting point falls 
between the curves of equidistant points, linear interpolation shall be 
used. 

C-3.3 The Location of Service Contours 

C-3.3.1 The distances to the 0.5 mV/m and 3 mV/m contours shall be 
predicted by using the ERP in the plane of maximum radiation, the HAATs in 
the direction of the eight standard radials and the F( 50,50) propagation 
curves. In the case of directional antennas, the ERP value in the direction 
of the eight standard radials should be used. 

 LATM ' LAT1 % LAT2 2 
 LATK ' 111. 108 & 0.566 cos ( 2 LATM ) 
 LONGK ' 111. 391 cos ( LATM ) & 0.095 cos ( 3 LATM ) 
 LAT ' LATK ( LAT1 & LAT2 ) 
 LONG ' LONGK ( LONG1 & LONG2 ) 
 DIST ' LAT 2 % LONG 2 


C-4 COMPUTATION OF DISTANCE AND AZIMUTH 

C-4.1 Where transmitter sites have been established, the actual co-ordinates 
of the transmitter sites shall be used as reference points. If a transmitter 
site has not been established, the community's reference co-ordinates (the 
co-ordinates of the centre of the city) shall be used unless the co-
ordinates have been specified in the Allotment Plan. 

C-4.2 The distance between reference points is considered to be the length 
of the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle, one side of which is the 
difference in latitude of the reference points and the other side the 
difference in longitude of the two reference points, and shall be computed 
as follows: 

 (a) convert latitude and longitude into degrees and decimal parts of a 
     degree. Determine the middle latitude of the two reference points 
     (average the latitudes of the two points); 

 (b) determine the number of km per degree of latitude difference for the 
     actual middle latitude in (a) above; 

 (c) determine the number of km per degree of longitude difference for the 
     actual middle latitude in (a) above; 

 (d) determine the North-South distance in km; (e) determine the East-West 
     distance in km; (f) determine the distance between the reference points 
     by the square root of the sum of the squares of the distances obtained; 

  d ' arccos [sin ( LAT2 )sin( LAT1 ) % cos ( LAT2 ) cos ( LAT1 ) cos ( 
    LONG1 & LONG2 )] 

  BEAR ' arccos sin ( LAT2) & sin ( LAT1) cos ( d) cos ( LAT1) sin( d) 

where: 
 LAT1 & LONG1 = co-ordinates of the first location in decimal degrees, 
 LAT2 & LONG2 = co-ordinates of the second location in decimal degrees, 
 LATM = middle latitude between points, 
 LATK = km per degree of latitude difference, 
 LONGK = km per degree of longitude difference, 
 LAT = north-south distance in km, 
 LONG = east-west distance in km, and 
 DIST = distance between two reference points in km.
In computing the above, sufficient decimal figures shall be used to 
determine the distance to the nearest kilometre. The method for computing 
distances provides adequate accuracy for determining distances less than 350 
km. 

C-4.3 The azimuth or the bearing between true north and the radial 
connecting one reference point to the other, shall be calculated as follows: 

 (a) convert latitude and longitude into degrees and decimal parts of a 
     degree; 

 (b) determine the arc length in degrees between the two reference 
     locations; 

 (c) calculate the bearing (if the second location is west of the initial 
     location, subtract the result from 360 E ; i. e., 360 -BEAR), 

where: 

 LAT1, LAT2, LONG1 & LONG2 are as specified in Section C-4.2; 

 d = arc length between locations in decimal degrees; 

 BEAR = angle between true north (0 degrees) and the connecting radial in 
      decimal degrees. 

In computing the above, sufficient decimal figures shall be used to 
determine the bearing to the nearest degree. 


C-5. ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF MAXIMUM FIELD STRENGTH OF FM BROADCASTING 
STATIONS
C-5.1 Introduction 

Service requirements and constraints related to the siting of FM 
broadcasting stations may result in high signal strength levels in populated 
areas. Under these conditions, FM receivers, as well as other radio 
frequency devices, are susceptible to signal overload and intermodulation 
(IM) interference. High signal strength levels may also cause equipment 
malfunctions in non-radio frequency devices. To avoid or to minimize such 
problems, it is necessary to assess the potential for interference. 

C-5.2 Purpose 

The purpose of this sub-section is to: 

- identify the analysis required from applicants in determining interference 
potential, 

- define the responsibilities of broadcasters in response to interference 
complaints, 

- detail the procedure to be followed by applicants in notifying local 
municipal authorities of the station's proposed location (refer to Section 
C- 5.5.2). 

The requirements of this Sub-Section apply to all applications for the issue 
or amendment of broadcasting certificates for FM broadcasting stations using 
primary frequency assignments. 

C-5.3 Requirements for Interference Analyses and Population Estimates In 
addition to the departmental requirements contained in Section B-2 
pertaining to the engineering brief, interference analyses as per Sections 
C-5. 3. 1 and C-5.3.2 are required. In specific cases, the Department may 
accept a common assessment for co-located stations, multiplexed or 
otherwise. 

C-5.3.1 Assessment of Close-in Field Strength Levels and Population 
Estimates An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing 
station shall submit an estimate of the population within the 115 and 100 
dBu contours. The location of these contours shall be determined using the 
appropriate F( 50,50) field strength curves and shown on a suitable map. For 
distances of less than 1.5 km, the free space formula should be utilized 
(refer to Section C-5.4.2). 

Every attempt shall be made to keep the population within the 115 and 100 
dBu contours to a minimum. The Department reserves the right to request 
changes to the antenna site, to the antenna height, to the antenna itself, 
or to the radiated power to reduce the population within these high signal 
level contours. 

C-5.3.2 Intermodulation Products 

It is necessary to identify the frequency of all third order IM products of 
the type 2f1 - f2 and f1  f2  f3, resulting from the combination of 
assigned and available frequencies allotted in the FM Allotment Plan to the 
centre( s) to be served. Only those channels having 0.5 mV/m or greater 
signal strength over any such centre need to be considered. If any such 
frequency product falls on or are within 200 kHz of Canadian FM channels 
allotted or assigned to said centre( s), then interference may exist and the 
following documentation shall be prepared and submitted to the Department: 

 (a) where the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) contours of existing Canadian stations 
     overlap the 115 dBu or the 100 dBu contours of the applicant's proposed 
     station, and where the reception of such stations may be affected by IM 
     products as calculated above, an estimate of the population within all 
     overlapping zones shall be included; 

 (b) in addition, centres within the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) contour of the 
     applicant's proposed station which may encounter IM interference to its 
     reception shall be identified; 

 (c) an estimate of the population within the 70 dBu (3 mV/m) and the 54 
     dBu (0.5 mV/m) contours shall be submitted. 

  F ' 137 % 10 log ( ERP) & 20 log( d) 

The applicant shall also include a rationale for the choice of the proposed 
station's parameters in light of the analyses above. The Department reserves 
the right to request further analysis and justification or amendments when, 
in its opinion, these are warranted. 


C-5.4 Method for Calculating High Field Strength Contours 

C-5.4.1 The antenna radiation patterns, vertical and horizontal (if antenna 
is directional), are normally supplied by the antenna manufacturer. In 
predicting high field strength contours, the ERP should be based on the 
appropriate antenna vertical plane radiation pattern for the azimuthal 
direction concerned. 

C-5.4.2 For distances less than 1. 5 km from the transmitting site, the 
field strength should be determined from the following free space formula; 

 where: 

 F: is the field strength in dBu (dB above one microvolt per metre); 

 ERP: is the effective radiated power in Watts at the pertinent depression angle; 

 d:: is the slant distance (in metres) between the centre of radiation of the antenna and the receiving location. 


C-5.4.3 For distances between 1. 5 and 4 kilometres, the field strength 
should be determined from the F( 50,50) curves. Use the height of the 
antenna radiation centre with respect to the location under consideration. 

C-5.4.4 For distances beyond 4 kilometres, the field strength should be 
determined from the F( 50,50) curves using the pertinent HAAT. 

C-5.4.5 Whenever F( 50,50) curves are being used, the antenna height and the 
distance from the tower should be used to determine the depression angle 
from Figure 3 of APPENDIX 1. The ERP for that direction shall be determined 
by the depression angle and the vertical pattern information of the antenna. 
For the horizontal directional pattern, the power shall also be adjusted 
according to the azimuth selected. 

  d i ' H tan ( 1 i % A) 

  d i ' 57. 3 H 1 i % A 

C-5.4.6 Close-in field strength prediction may involve nulls in the vertical 
radiation pattern which shall be taken into consideration. The distances (d) 
along the ground where the field strength due to a vertical pattern null 
is at i minimum, can be calculated by the following relationship: 

where: 
 A and 1 are the beam tilt angle and the angles corresponding to the different nulls in the vertical pattern i respectively (both in degrees). 

 H = height (in metres) to radiation centre of antenna; 

 d = distances in metres along ground. i 

 For values of 1 + A # 10 E : i 

This general relationship is plotted for various antenna heights as shown in 
Figure 3 of APPENDIX 1. 

C-5.5 Broadcaster's Responsibilities 

The broadcaster will accept responsibility to: 

 - remedy valid complaints of interference to radio frequency devices within 
   the 115 dBu contour (refer to Section C- 5.6 for list of complaints 
   judged not valid by the Department), and 

 - provide technical advice to complainants, located between the 115 dBu 
   contour and the service contours of the station, concerning appropriate 
   action to resolve interference problems attributed to the station, and 

 - keep the appropriate district office of the Department fully informed of 
   all complaints received and action taken. 

At a future date, and following the development of radio frequency immunity 
standards for non-radio frequency devices, the broadcaster will be 
responsible for remedying valid complaints of interference caused by the 
station to such devices. 

Changes to existing stations that do not modify the structure and its 
attachments nor change the location 10 of the 115 dBu contour need not be 
notified. 

C-5.5.1 Broadcaster's Commitment 

To acknowledge the responsibilities of the broadcaster with respect to the 
high field strength contours, all applicants shall submit the following 
commitment to the Department: 

"In the event a broadcasting certificate is issued as a result of this 
application, the holder of the broadcasting certificate agrees to take 
prompt and appropriate action to correct overload and/or blanketing 
interference and any other type of interference to radio frequency devices 
inside the 115 dBu contour of the station, bearing all corrective costs 
involved, unless such complaints are of a type judged not valid by Industry 
Canada. Where interference occurs in areas between the 115 dBu contour and 
the service contours of the station, the holder of the broadcasting 
certificate agrees to provide technical advice to complainants by suggesting 
appropriate remedial action to resolve interference problems attributed to 
the station". 

C-5.5.2 Notifying the Local Municipality 

An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing station shall 
submit a notice to the local 10 municipality( ies) (all municipalities with 
an area enclosed by the 115 dBu contour) stating his or her intention to 
operate an FM broadcasting station in the area. The purpose of this notice 
is to provide the municipal authority with an opportunity to consider the 
implication of the proposed antenna structure and site. The municipal 
authority may file a written objection to the proposed facilities with the 
appropriate Industry Canada District Office. The applicant and the municipal 
authority shall resolve all municipal problems and objections. Failing this, 
the Department will consider all factors pertaining to the application, as 
well as the municipal comments, and render a final decision. 

The notice shall include the following information: 

 (a) a statement to indicate that a broadcasting station is planned for the 
     municipality and that, if approved, the operation of the station would 
     be subject to federal regulations for which a broadcasting licence from 
     the CRTC and a broadcasting certificate from Industry Canada are 
     required; 

 (b) a sketch of the building, the proposed tower( s) and antennas, with 
     sufficient detail and dimensions to give a pictorial representation of 
     the total structure; 

 (c) a map showing the transmitter site and the location of the 115 dBu 
     contour. This shall be accompanied by a statement to say that should 
     interference to radio frequency devices occur inside this contour, the 
     applicant would be responsible for corrective action in remedying the 
     complaints, unless such interference complaints are deemed to be not 
     valid by the Department. A list of complaints normally considered not 
     valid by the Department is given in Section C-5.6, and shall be 
     included with the statement. In addition, the statement shall indicate 
     that the applicant will provide advice by suggesting appropriate 
     remedial action to resolve valid complaints of interference caused by 
     the station when such complaints originate from the area between the 
     115 dBu contour and the station's service contours; 

 (d) a statement to indicate that, if subsequent building development occurs 
     inside the 115 dBu contour, which could give rise to interference 
     complaints, or if new or existing devices are added or re-located 
     inside the contour, the applicant would not be expected to assume 
     responsibility for corrective action for such new entrants; and 

 (e) a statement to indicate that the performance of some radio frequency, 
     as well as some non-radio frequency devices, may be degraded by high 
     signal strengths from the station because of design limitations such as 
     inadequate or improper shielding of the devices. 

The notice is to be filed with each municipal authority with sufficient lead 
time to permit it to consider the impact of the proposal. Insufficient lead 
time could delay the processing of the application by the Department and may 
also cause the CRTC to reschedule this item for a later Public Hearing. A 
copy of this notice is to be filed with the Department's headquarters 
office. 

C-5.5.3 Sharing of Responsibility 

Within the 115 dBu contour of co-located or near co-located FM stations, 
should a new station experience problems of overloading, blanketing or IM 
interference or cause such problems to the reception of other broadcasting 
stations, all stations involved shall assume their appropriate share of the 
responsibility to remedy such problems. 

C-5.6 List of Complaints Judged Not Valid by Industry Canada 

The following list identifies the types of complaints judged not valid by 
the Department and for which the broadcaster is not responsible for remedial 
action: 

 (a) where the complaint is attributed to the use of a malfunctioning or 
     mistuned receiver or an improperly installed or defective antenna 
     system; 

 (b) where the complaint involves non-radio frequency devices such as 
     computers, microprocessors, calculators, audio or video tape recorders, 
     record or disc players, electronic organs, telephones, hi-fi 
     amplifiers, garage door openers etc.; 

 (c) where the complaint is attributed to the desired signal being received 
     at a location outside the coverage area of the station; 

 (d) where the complaint is attributed to the desired signal not being 
     favourably received because of adverse local propagation conditions or 
     building penetration losses; 

 (e) where the complaint involves the reception of signals originating from 
     outside of Canada; 

 (f) where the complaint involves the malfunction of radio frequency devices 
     that are located inside the 115 dBu contour, if the devices were 
     introduced within the contour after the station started operating with 
     the new facilities; 

 (g) where the complaint involves a high gain receiving antenna and/or an 
     antenna booster amplifier intended for reception of distant stations 
     which, as a consequence, overloads the receiver or creates 
     intermodulation in the amplifier output; 

 (h) where the complaint is attributed to overload interference in radio 
     receivers that are located outside the 115 dBu contour; 

 (i) any other complaint which, in the judgement of the Department, is 
     considered not valid. 


C-6. POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE TO TV FROM FM BROADCASTING STATION ASSIGNMENTS 

These guidelines identify a number of potential interference situations 
involving FM and television reception, and establish an interim requirement 
pending the results of further studies. 

C-6.1 Second Harmonic Interference 

Second harmonic radiation from FM transmitters may cause objectionable 
interference to the reception of TV signals on Channels 7-13 in areas where 
the TV signal level is relatively low compared to the FM signal. Present 
standards in Canada require that the second harmonics of FM transmitters be 
attenuated 80 dB or more below the level of unmodulated carrier, depending 
on the operating power. In areas where the ratio of FM to TV signals is 
quite large, the relative level of the FM second harmonic may interfere with 
TV reception. Since there are a number of cases where such second harmonic 
relationships exist in the present channel allotment plans for FM and TV, 
care may need to be exercised in selecting sites for new stations in order 
to avoid high ratios of FM to TV signal levels which might result in 
objectionable interference. 

In circumstances where it is difficult to avoid the aforementioned channel 
relationships, FM proposals predicated on the use of these channels shall 
include a complete engineering analysis of the potential interference 
situation. The brief shall include an undertaking from the applicant that 
complaints of interference will be investigated and appropriate measures 
will be take to remedy the n situation at the applicant's own expense. 

Near co-located means within 400 m of the TV ch. 6 transmitter site. 

C-6.2 Interference to Channel 6 from FM Broadcasting Stations on Channels 
201-220 

C-6.2.1 To minimize possible interference to TV Channel 6 from FM 
transmissions on channels 201-220 inclusive, it is required that the FM and 
TV signal strengths at TV receiver locations not exceed certain levels. To 
achieve this objective, the siting of FM stations and their power levels, in 
relation to TV Channel 6, have to be considered. 

The perceptibility of interference to TV Channel 6 depends on the frequency 
separation and the levels of both the FM and TV signal strengths. To 
minimize interference, it is desirable to equalize the ratio of the FM to TV 
signal strengths at all receiver locations and therefore co-location or near 
co-location of 11 the FM and TV stations is highly recommended. 
Alternatively if co-location or near co-location is not possible, an FM 
transmitter site outside the Grade B contour of the TV station may be 
considered. 

C-6.2.2 FM stations on channel numbers 201-220, that are co-located or near 
co-located with a TV station on channel 6, shall have ERP (horizontally 
polarized component) ratios that do not exceed the values of Table C-2, 
provided that both antennas have similar heights. If the height of the FM 
antenna differs by 30 metres or more from the height of the TV antenna, the 
power of the FM shall be adjusted to take into account the difference in 
height of both antennas. Where directional antenna patterns are used, the FM 
to TV ERP ratios shall not exceed those given in Table C-2 at any azimuth. 

   Channel FM/TV (dB) Channel FM/TV (dB) 
            201 -9.0           211 -4.0 
            202 -7.5           212 -3.4 
            203 -6.2           213 -2.4 
            204 -5.0           214 -1.3 
            205 -4.4           215 0.0 
            206 -4.4           216 +1.5 
            207 -4.4           217 +3.5 
            208 -4.4           218 +6.0 
            209 -4.4           219 +8.8 
            210 -4.4           220 +11.5 


TABLE C-2: Permissible FM to TV Power Ratio for FM channels 201 to 220 
inclusive, when co-located or near co-located with TV channel 6. 

NOTE 1: The TV power is the ERP of the visual power and is referenced to the 
RMS of sync. peak. The FM power is the ERP and is referenced to the RMS 
Power. 

NOTE 2: The FM to TV power ratios are based on a quality of a TV Picture 
defined as a ITU-R picture impairment Grade of 4.0 and the FM to TV signal 
ratio at the receiver is taken at a TV receiver input signal of -25 dBm. The 
ratio applies to 70 % of all receiver locations. 

The FM to TV power ratios shown are for horizontal polarization of the TV 
and FM stations. If beam tilt is to be used for either the TV or FM, the 
maximum power( s) at the beam tilt angle( s) is (are) to be used. If 
elliptical polarization is used for the FM, the FM power for the vertical 
polarized component may be up to 6 dB greater than the horizontal component. 

FM to TV power ratios in excess of the values shown in the above table may 
be allowed when there is no resident population near the FM transmitting 
site or when indoor receiving antennas are used. For such cases, the 
applicant shall demonstrate that the TV channel 6 signal at the receiver 
input in the viewers' homes is less than -25 dBm. The FM to TV power ratio 
can be increased by selecting a lower TV receiver input signal level. The 
protection to TV channel 6 from an FM signal at various frequencies and at 
various TV receiver input levels of the channel 6 signal is shown in 
APPENDIX 7. 

C-6.2.3 The Grade B contour of a TV station on channel 6 is protected up to 
a radial distance of 89 km. For FM stations located outside the Grade B 
contour, the permissible horizontally polarized field strength of the 
proposed FM station, at the protected Grade B contour of the TV station 
shall not exceed the value shown in the Table C-3, using the F( 50, 10) 
propagation curves. If elliptical polarization is used for the FM, the field 
strength level of the vertical polarized component may be up to 6 dB greater 
than the horizontal component. 

    Channel Field (dBu) Channel Field (dBu) 
        201    57           211   78 
        202    60           212   78 
        203    63           213   79 
        204    66           214   81 
        205    70           215   82 
        206    74           216   84 
        207    77           217   86 
        208    77           218   89 
        209    77           219   92 
        210    78           220   95 

TABLE C-3: Permissible Field Strength Levels of FM Channels 201 to 220 incl. 
at Grade B contour of TV channel 6 

NOTE: The above table is derived on the basis of an FM to TV channel 6 ratio 
at a TVreceiver input signal level of -65 dBm. This is equivalent to the 
field strength obtained at the Grade B contour. The value in the table 
includes a 6 dB directivity discrimination for the antenna together with a 
quality of TV picture defined as a ITU-R picture impairment Grade of 4.0. 

Multiplex sub-carrier transmissions on channels 299 and 300 will be 
restricted until further information is 12 available on emitted spurious 
radiation above 108 MHz. 


C-7 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEX OPERATION 

C-7.1 Preamble 

The following technical requirements govern the use of multiplex sub-carrier 
transmissions by frequency modulated broadcasting stations in the 88-108 MHz 
band for purposes of providing subcarrier services other than stereophonic 
broadcasting . These requirements set forth the technical standards to be 12 
followed by applicants in applying for a Subsidiary Communication Multiplex 
Operation (SCMO) in order to amend the broadcasting certificate required for 
broadcasting stations. 

C-7.2 Definitions 

C-7.2.1 Multiplex Sub-carrier. A sub-carrier having a frequency within the 
range 20-99 kHz of the FM baseband and which is modulated with the 
subsidiary communication information. 

C-7.3 Multiplex Transmission Standards 

C-7.3.1 Any form of modulation may be used on any SCMO subcarrier. 

C-7.3.2 More than one subsidiary communications sub- carrier may be used 
simultaneously provided that: 

 - during stereophonic or monophonic transmission, multiplexed sub- carriers 
   shall be within the baseband frequency range of 53 to 99 kHz; 

 - during periods when no broadcast programs are transmitted, multiplexed 
   sub- carriers may be within the baseband frequency range of 20 to 99 kHz. 

C-7.3.3 During stereophonic or monophonic program transmissions, the 
modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all multiplex sub-
carriers below 76 kHz may not exceed 10 % (7.5 kHz) and modulation of the 
carrier by the arithmetic sum of all multiplex sub-carriers above 76 kHz may 
not exceed 10 % (7.5 kHz). Modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum 
of all multiplex sub-carriers may not exceed 20 % referenced to 75 kHz 
deviation. When more than one subcarrier is used, the total modulation may 
be increased by 0.5 % for each 1 % sub-carrier injection modulation, and 
under no circumstances may the total modulation of the carrier exceed 110 % 
(82.5 kHz peak deviation). 

C-7.3.4 During periods when no broadcast programmes are being transmitted, 
the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all multiplex sub-
carriers above 76 kHz may not exceed 10 % (7.5 kHz) and the modulation of 
the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all sub-carriers may not exceed 30 % 
referenced to 75 kHz (22.5 kHz peak deviation). 

C-7.3.5 During monophonic or stereophonic programme transmission, the cross-
talk, within the range of 50 Hz to 53 kHz caused by all multiplex sub-
carriers, shall be at least 60 dB below the 100 % modulation (75 kHz peak 
deviation) reference. 


C-8 USE OF DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT 

C-8.1 The Dolby Broadcast Encoder compresses high frequency audio to be 
transmitted by an FM broadcasting station in the same manner as the well-
known Dolby noise reduction system for magnetic tapes, at the same time 
reducing the effective degree of pre-emphasis from 75 to 25 microseconds. 
Since the encoding process tends to compensate for the decreased pre-
emphasis, listeners with conventional receivers generally do not notice the 
increased level of low volume high frequency audio and those who do tend to 
prefer it. Thus the permitted use of the Dolby encoder is conditional upon 
the simultaneous functioning of the encoding circuitry and the reduction of 
the effective degree of pre-emphasis. 

C-8.2 For receivers equipped with complementary Dolby circuitry, 
thebroadcast signal has a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. 
Furthermore, a station equipped with the encoder can, with certain programme 
material, modulate at a higher average level than would otherwise be 
possible. This tends to provide a certain improvement in signal-to-noise 
ratio with conventional receivers also. 

C-8.3 If Dolby encoding is implemented, the Department should be notified as 
per Section B-5. 


C-9 DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS 

C-9.1 Directional antennas may be used by stations operating on unlimited 
allotments, but their use shall not prevent future increases up to the 
maximum parameters. Directional antennas may also be used by stations 
occupying or proposing the use of limited allotments to render protection to 
co-channel and adjacent channel stations. 

C-9.2 The ratio of maximum to minimum fields of a directional antenna system 
shall not be greater than 20 dB except where signal reflections due to local 
terrain will present a reception problem or where other circumstances such 
as large body of water exist. The radiation from a directional antenna shall 
not vary from the notified radiation pattern by more than  2 dB. Where 
limitations are involved, the radiation in the direction( s) of protection 
shall not exceed the limitation. For antenna patterns not meeting this 
tolerance, the radiation shall be reduced accordingly. 

The notified radiation pattern shall include the effect of the mounting 
structure, the margin of accuracy, and shall be certified by the 
manufacturer or the supplier. 


C-10 TRANSMITTER LOCATIONS 

C-10.1 FM station transmitters shall be located to serve the principal 
centre to which the channel is assigned and to ensure the overall 
effectiveness of the Allotment Plan. Transmitter sites shall be located so 
that the separations are not less than those set forth in Section C-1.4 
except when specifically agreed to in accordance with Section C-1.5. 

Form 16-850 is presently under review. The new title will refer to 
Broadcasting Certificate instead of TC & 13 OC. 


SECTION D PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR 
LOW POWER FM (LPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS 

D- 1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE 

D- 1.1 Preamble 

This Section outlines the procedure to be followed in preparing and 
submitting technical information required in support of applications for low 
power FM stations using standard FM channels on an unprotected non-
interfering basis (such a low power FM assignment is considered to be a 
secondary station). 

D-1.2 Requirements 

D-1.2.1 An application for a broadcasting certificate shall be made on 
departmental Form 16-850 "Application for a 13 Technical Construction and 
Operating Certificate for a Low Power FM (Frequency Modulation) Broadcasting 
Station". The applicant may also submit a separate engineering brief in 
accordance with Section D-2. An application form for a broadcasting licence 
can be obtained from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunication 
Commission (CRTC). The two applications shall be filed simultaneously. 

D-1.2.2 All necessary forms may be obtained from any departmental regional 
office (Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, Moncton) or departmental 
headquarters in Ottawa. 

D-1.2.3 A complete technical submission shall include the following: 

 (a) five copies of departmental Form 16-850 should be submitted when 
     applying for a new station 13 or a change of technical facilities of an 
     existing station. The Form 16-850 also contains 13 abbreviated an 
     technical submission which should be presentedas the engineering brief 
     if the minimum separation distances of Tables E- 1 and E- 2 are 
     complied with. Otherwise, a complete engineering brief (five copies) 
     should be submitted in accordance with Section D- 2; 

 (b) two copies of departmental Form 16- 653 "Notice of Retention of 
     Broadcast Engineering Consultant" advising the Department of the 
     retention of a broadcast engineering consultant in respect to 
     technical design and brief preparation should be submitted by the 
     applicant, prior to the filing of the application. The Department 
     will, if advised in writing by the applicant, also process 
     engineering briefs prepared by qualified technical staff (BPR- I, 
     Section 1.2); 

D-1.2.4 Three copies of Department of Transport (DOT) Form 26-0427 
entitled "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form" shall be completed. 
Topographic maps showing the elevation contours and the exact location of 
the antenna site as set forth in Section 2 of BPR-I shall be attached. 
All shall be submitted directly to the Regional Office of DOT for 
clearance. A copy of DOT's letter of aeronautical approval shall be sent 
to Industry Canada. 

Form 26-0427 is obtainable from the Regional Office of the Department of 
Transport or Industry Canada. 

D-1.3 Notifying the Local Muncipality 

An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing station 
shall submit a notice to the local municipality stating his or her 
intention to operate a low power FM broadcasting station in the area. 
This notice shall also include a sketch of the building, the proposed 
tower( s) and antennas, with sufficient detail and dimension to give a 
pictorial representation of the total structure. The purpose of this 
notice is to provide the municipal authority with an opportunity to 
consider the implications of the proposed antenna structure and site. The 
municipal authority may file a written objection to the proposed 
facilities with the appropriate District Office of Industry Canada. The 
applicant and the municipal authority shall resolve all municipal 
problems and objections. Failing this, the Department will consider all 
factors pertaining to the application, as well as the municipal comments, 
and render a final decision. 

A copy of the notice to the municipality is to be filed with the 
Department's headquarters office. 


D-2 ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS 

D-2.1 Summary Sheet 

This will show the submission title, type of station proposed, name and 
address of applicant, name of the technical representative, transmitting 
channel proposed, location of proposed broadcasting station and 
submission date. 

D-2.2 Introduction 

This will consist of a general statement of the purpose of the brief 
relative to the application. The programming source( s), method of 
programming feed and network affiliation shall be indicated. 

D-2.3 Transmitting Channel 

A brief interference analysis in support of the transmitting channel 
selected should be included in the brief, with particular reference to 
its relation to existing FM assignments and allotted channels under the 
Canadian FM Broadcasting Allotment Plan. This analysis should demonstrate 
that no interference will be caused by or to the service of authorized 
stations using standard parameters or low power stations now being 
received in the area. Moreover, every effort should be made to avoid 
affecting the off-air receiving systems of neighbouring broadcasting 
undertakings. 

D-2.4 Received Channel (Using off-air pick-up) 

An analysis shall be provided to demonstrate the suitability of the 
received signal level. If the station to be received is in operation, the 
analysis shall include an assessment of the quality and reliability of 
the received signal by such means as field strength measurements 
combined, where possible, with a subjective analysis using an FM 
receiver. Detailed point-to-point propagation and interference analyses 
using recognized engineering methods should also be supplied. 

D-2.5 System Description and Design 

A description of the major components of the system, including a block 
diagram, shall be provided.
D-2.6 Equipment 

D-2.6.1 Receiving and Transmitting Antennas - Antenna specifications 
including the type, manufacturer, gain relative to a half-wave dipole and 
radiation patterns shall be supplied. The orientation of the transmitting 
antenna shall be indicated. 

D-2.6.2 Transmitting Equipment - The transmitting unit shall be type-
approved. The intent to use a type-approved transmitter( s) shall be made 
clear, either by specifying the make, model and type-approval number, or 
by a statement that the transmitter will be type-approved prior to on-air 
operation. The rated power shall be specified. 

D-2.6.3 Transmission Lines - Antenna line specifications shall be 
supplied including manufacturer, type and length. 

D-2.6.4 Power Supply - This shall include a description of the primary 
and, where available, standby methods of supplying power to the 
installation. 

D-2.7 Service Area Calculations and Contour Map 

Calculations determining the service area and a contour map, prepared as 
outlined in Section E-3, shall be submitted. 

D-2.8 Predicted Quality of Service 

A statement shall be made concerning the quality and reliability of the 
proposed service as evaluated per Section E-2. 


SECTION E TECHNICAL REREQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LOW POWER FM 
STATIONS ON UNPROTECTED CHANNELS 

E-1 TECHNICAL CRITERIA 

E-1.1 Conditions 

E-1.1.1 Definitions 

A low power FM (LPFM) station is a secondary assignment operating on an 
unprotected channel. 

E-1.1.2 Power 

The effective radiated power (ERP) in any direction shall not exceed 50 
Watts. The ERP is equal to the transmitter power supplied to the antenna 
multiplied by the relative gain (dipole) of the antenna in a given 
direction. 

E-1.1.3 Antenna 

Normally the maximum transmitting antenna height is 60 metres when the 
ERP is 50 Watts. Should the transmitting antenna height exceed 60 metres, 
the ERP and height, when plotted on Figure 1 of APPENDIX 4, should fall 
below or to the left of the curve. In this procedure, transmitting 
antenna height (HAAT) is the height of the radiation centre of the 
antenna above the arithmetic average of the elevation of the terrain 
measured in metres from 0 to 5 kilometres along four standard radials at 
0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees from true north. 

E-1.1.4 Coverage and Protection 

An LPFM station provides service only within its 3 mV/m (70 dBu) contour. 
Service may also be provided within the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) contour (see 
Section E-1.3.3). 

Under no circumstances shall the 3 mV/m contour extend beyond a distance 
of eight kilometres in any direction from the antenna site even if this 
requires a reduction in the ERP. 

E-1.1.5 Transmitter 

The transmitter shall be a model which has been type-approved under Radio 
Standards Specification (RSS) No. 153. 

Where an applicant for a low power rebroadcasting station proposes the 
use of a heterodyne translator, i. e. a device which receives on one 
frequency and transmits on another without demodulation, and until such 
time as a specification may be issued for the type-approval of such 
equipment, a submission shall be made under Radio Standards Procedure 
(RSP) No. 103 to establish its technical acceptability. 

E-1.1.6 Special Applications 

In mountainous terrain locations, where the transmitting antenna height 
is more than 300 metres above the elevation of the community to be 
served, it may not be possible to provide an adequate service under the 
conditions in Section E-1.1.3 above. In such cases, a broadcast 
consultant should be retained to demonstrate that the existing stations 
and allotments shall be protected from interference. In addition, the 
Department will consider proposals with parameters engineered to provide 
adequate service to the centre to be served with the following limiting 
conditions: 

 (a) the effective radiated power shall not exceed 50 Watts in any 
     direction; 

 (b) the 3 mV/m contour shall not extend beyond a distance of eight 
     kilometres from the transmitting site. 

E-1.2 Status with Regard to Interference to and from other Stations 

E-1.2.1 LPFM stations will be considered as secondary assignments. In 
other words, except as provided for in Section E-1.4, LPFM stations shall 
not create interference to primary FM broadcasting stations, whether 
established before or after them. Conversely, an LPFM station is not 
entitled to protection from interference by normally functioning primary 
FM stations. LPFM stations are assigned on a protected basis from each 
other according to their date of notification. 

E-1.2.2 Interference to and from existing stations and allotments is not 
deemed to exist if the distance separation requirements set forth in 
Section E-1.3.2 are met. 

E-1.2.3 The Department may require an LPFM station to take remedial 
action if the calculated protection ratio at the protected contour of an 
existing primary station is not provided, or if a change in channel 
allotments results in the prediction of interference to the new allotment 
from the LPFM station. In the latter case, it is expected that the 
applicant for a channel in a changed allotment plan will consider, 
calculate, and notify the interference impact to the LPFM station. 
Normally it is expected that only a frequency change by the LPFM station 
would be necessary but cessation of operation by the LPFM station would 
be required if no other suitable remedial action is practicable. An LPFM 
station would not be expected to cease operation to protect a vacant 
allotment. 

E-1.2.4 Should a new primary station or one which has changed parameters 
cause interference to an LPFM station but not receive any, the latter may 
either accept the interference or make application to change its 
operation to alleviate the interference. Interference should be deemed to 
exist when the desired to undesired field strength ratios of 10 to 1, 2 
to 1, 1 to 10 and 1 to 100 from co-channel, first, second, and third 
adjacent channels, respectively, are not met. These ratios may be 
determined from F( 50,50) field strength curves for the desired signal 
and F( 50,10) field strength curves for the undesired signal, or by any 
recognized engineering method. 

E-1.3 Choice of Frequency 

E-1.3.1 Channels in the band 88 to 108 MHz are assigned on the basis of 
200 kHz separations with carrier frequencies every odd 100 kHz. For 
convenience, these channels are numbered consecutively from 201 to 300. 

E-1.3.2 A frequency shall be chosen which meets the distance separations 
from existing stations and allotments as shown in Table E-1: 

   Frequency Class of Station 
   Relationship 
   (difference)  A1  A   B   C1   C    LPFM   VLPFM 
      Co-Channel 50  65  97  124  144  17     15 
    1st adjacent 32  47  79  100  111  10      8 
       (0.2 MHz) 
    2nd adjacent 21  36  68   89  100   5      5 
       (0.4 MHz) 
    3rd adjacent 18  33  65   86   97   4      4 
       (0.6 MHz) 

TABLE E-1: Minimum Separations (km) required to provide interference-free 
(3 mV/m) coverage. Minimum separation distances with respect to Class C 
allotments or assignments are based on an ERP of 100 kW and an EHAAT of 
450 m. 

E-1.3.3 The separations in Table E-1 are based on LPFMs giving protection 
to the 0.5 mV/m contour of Class A1, A, B, C1 and C stations, and in 
return, receiving protection from other LPFMs to at least the 3 mV/m 
contour. While not mandatory, the following Table E-2 shows the required 
separations for an LPFM station from an LPFM and other classes of 
stations to provide interference-free coverage up to the 0. 5 mV/m 
contour. Applicants are encouraged to select channels which provide the 
separations given in Table E-2 whenever possible. 

       Frequency Class of Station 
        Relationship 
       (difference) A1 A B C1 C LPFM VLPFM 

        Co-Channel 70 109 179 215 231 42 23 
        1st adjacent 37 62 109 140 159 24 15 
        (0.2 MHz) 

        2nd adjacent 21 36 68 89 100 13 11 
        (0.4 MHz) 

        3rd adjacent 19 33 65 86 97 10 9 
        (0.6 MHz) 

TABLE E-2: Minimum Separations (km) required to provide interference-free 
0.5 mV/m coverage. 

E-1.3.4 Tables E-1 and E-2 separations are based on an ERP of 50 Watts 
with an antenna height of 60 metres for LPFM stations and maximum 
permissible parameters for other stations. Minimum separation distances 
with respec to Class C allotments and assignments are based on an ERP of 
100 kW and an EHAAT of 450 m. 

E-1.3.5 One systematic method of determining which channels are available 
is outlined in APPENDIX 5. E-1.3.6 For applications with the special 
conditions as described in Section E-1.1.6, a frequency shall be chosen 
which meets the limiting conditions identified in that section. 

E-1.4 Separations Less than the Minimum 

If it is impossible to find a frequency which meets all the minimum 
distance separations to primary FM stations, a submission based on 
separations, none of which are more than eight kilometres short of the 
distances in Table E-1, may be considered only when the mutual consent of 
all stations involved and departmental approval are obtained. In such 
cases, a broadcast engineering consultant shall conduct a detailed 
channel search and will determine and plot on a map the theoretical 
interference zones as well as the interference-free coverage. 

E-2 QUALITY OF REBROADCAST SIGNAL 

E-2.1 An applicant for a rebroadcasting LPFM station shall provide 
assurance that the transmitted signal will be of acceptable technical 
quality. 

E-2.2 If the signal is to be picked up "off-air" or by a microwave link, 
an analysis of the propagation path over which the signal is to be 
received and an estimate of the level and signal-to-noise ratio of the 
received signal which will be exceeded 99 % of the time shall be 
provided. 

E-2.3 Section E-2.2 above does not apply during night-time if the signal 
received "off-air" is transmitted by an AM station. In such cases an 
estimate of the quality obtainable under night-time conditions will be 
sufficient. 

E-2.4 If the programme material is to be provided by a microwave link an 
estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio is required. For microwave 
programme links, application should be made to the appropriate Regional 
Office. 

E-2.5 If more than one rebroadcasting station is involved, the signal-to-
noise ratios at the preceding stations in the chain shall be taken into 
consideration. 


E-3 COVERAGE PREDICTIONS 

E-3.1 Estimates shall be made of the predicted coverage and submitted 
with the application. The F( 50,50) field strength curves in Figures 2 
and 3 of APPENDIX 4 should be used to determine the distance to the 0.5 
and 3 mV/m contours as follows: 

 (a) in areas of relatively smooth terrain, the distance to each contour 
     should be determined in the direction of the four standard radials 
     and one radial in the direction of the principal centre to be served 
     using the transmitting antenna height in the pertinent direction; 

 (b) in areas of mountainous terrain or in the proximity of other natural 
     obstacles, the distance to each contour should be determined in at 
     least the four standard directions plus one each in the direction of 
     the centres to be served using the transmitting antenna height in 
     the pertinent direction. When a directional antenna is proposed, the 
     ERP in the pertinent direction should be used. 

When a directional antenna is proposed, the ERP in the pertinent 
direction should be used. E-3.2 Suitable point-to-point type field 
strength calculations may be used to replace or supplement the above 
Paragraph E-3.1( b) if the irregularity of the terrain justifies the use 
of such techniques. 

E-3.3 The coverage predictions should be presented in tabular form and on 
a suitably detailed map with the transmitting site marked and the 0.5 and 
3 mV/m contours labelled. The map referred to in D-1.2.4 would be 
suitable, supplemented by a map of the adjacent area if necessary. 

When interference zones are predicted, as per E-1.4, they shall be shown 
on the contour map as hatched areas. 

Form 16-932 is presently under review. The new title will refer to 
Broadcasting Certificate instead of TC 14 & OC. 


SECTION F PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS 
FOR FM (VLPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS IN SMALL REMOTE COMMUNITIES 

Very low power FM stations shall only be established in those communities 
which are both outside the major urban/suburban areas and which are 
remote in the sense of lacking access to a complete range of Canadian 
broadcasting services. These stations shall use FM channels on an 
unprotected non-interfering basis with an ERP of 10 Watts or less. 

F-1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE 

F-1.1 Application Form 

An application for a broadcasting certificate shall be made on 
departmental Form 16-932 "Application 14 for a Technical Construction and 
Operating Certificate for a Very Low Power Television (VLPTV) or a Very 
Low Power FM (VLPFM) Broadcasting Transmitting Station in Small Remote 
Communities". Two copies of this form should be submitted. An application 
form for a broadcasting licence can be obtained from the Canadian Radio-
television and Telecommunication Commission (CRTC). The two applications 
shall be filed simultaneously. 

F-1.2 Antenna Site and Height Clearance Form 

Three copies of Department of Transport (DOT) Form 26-0427 entitled 
"Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form" shall be completed. Topographic 
maps showing the elevation contours and the exact location of the antenna 
site as set forth in Section 2 of BPR-I shall be attached. All shall be 
submitted directly to the Regional Office of DOT for clearance. A copy of 
DOT's letter of aeronautical approval shall be sent to the Department. 

Form 26-0427 is obtainable from the Regional Offices of the Department of 
Transport or Industry Canada. 

F-1.3 Notifying the Local Muncipality 

An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing station 
shall submit a notice to the local municipality stating his or her 
intention to operate a very low power FM broadcasting station in the 
area. This notice shall also include a sketch of the building, the 
proposed tower( s) and antennas, with sufficient detail and dimension to 
give a pictorial representation of the total structure. The purpose of 
this notice is to provide the municipal authority with an opportunity to 
consider the implications of the proposed antenna structure and site. The 
municipal authority may file a written objection to the proposed 
facilities with the appropriate Industry Canada District Office. The 
applicant and the municipal authority shall resolve all municipal 
problems and objections. Failing this, the Department will consider all 
factors pertaining to the application, as well as the municipal comments, 
and render a final decision. 

A copy of the notice to the municipality is to be filed with the 
Department's headquarters office. 


SECTION G TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VERY LOW POWER 
FM STATIONS (VLPFM) IN SMALL REMOTE COMMUNITIES 

G-1. TECHNICAL CRITERIA 

G-1.1 Conditions 

G-1.1.1 Power 

The ERP shall not exceed 10 Watts. The ERP is equal to the transmitter 
power supplied to the antenna multiplied by the relative gain (dipole) of 
the antenna in a given direction. 

G-1.1.2 Antenna Parameters 

The maximum antenna height above ground shall not exceed 30 metres. 

G-1.1.3 Equipment 

Recommended minimum technical standards for the transmitter are outlined 
in Telecommunications Regulation Circular (TRC) No. 54. 

G-1.1.4 Service 

Because of the nominal cost and the limited capability of the equipment, 
the quality of the signal provided may be limited. Service is only 
provided to the 3 mV/m contour. 

G-1.2 Selection of Frequency 

In selecting a channel, care should be taken to minimize the disruption 
of the existing pattern of off-air reception of distant stations in the 
community. The channel selected shall comply with the minimum distance 
separations shown in Table G-1. 

      Frequency Separation between stations (km) 
      Relationship VLP LP A1 A B C1 C 

      Co-channel 8 15 32 51 94 122 142 
      First Adjacent 5 8 24 38 71 92 103 
      Second Adjacent 3* 5 20 34 67 88 99 
      Third Adjacent 2* 4 18 32 65 86 97 


TABLE G-1: Minimum distance separations between VLPFM stations and 
primary and low power stations. Note: Distances marked with an 
asterisk(*) may be eliminated if stations are co-sited. The frequency of 
the transmitted signal shall correspond to the carrier frequency 
specified for allotted channels. 

G-1.3 Interference 

G-1.3.1 Interference to and from Other Stations 

Very Low Power FM (VLPFM) stations are not protected from interference 
caused by primary FM stations and by low power FM (LPFM) stations. Very 
low power stations shall not cause interference to any new or existing 
stations, and such stations are only entitled to protection from other 
very low power stations established in accordance with this Section. 
Protection of VLPFM stations applies at the 3 mV/m contour. 

G-1.3.2 Remedial Measures 

Should the operation of a very low power station established in 
accordance with this section cause interference to existing broadcasting 
stations or to other radio services, remedial measures shall be taken by 
the licensee even to the extent of closing down the station if another 
suitable channel cannot be found. These remedial measures also apply to 
the protection of future broadcasting stations established in accordance 
with new or existing allotment plans. 

G-1.4 Service and Coverage Guidelines 

The signal strength normally required to provide a satisfactory service 
to the low density population areas is the 3 mV/m contour. As a 
guideline, for a 10 Watt ERP using an antenna at a height of 30 metres 
above ground, the distance from the transmitter to the above contour is 
estimated to be slightly over 2 km (non-directional antenna with a gain 
of 0 dB). 


SECTION H PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS 
FOR FM REBROADCASTING STATIONS 

H-1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE 

H-1.1 Preamble 

This section outlines the procedure to be followed in preparing and 
submitting technical information required in support of applications for 
full time rebroadcasting stations. 

H-1.2 Conditions of Assignment 

Full time rebroadcasting stations may be assigned in areas within the 
protected contour of the originating station where the signal of the 
originating station is deficient (i. e. field strengths less than 0.5 
mV/m) due to terrain factors such as shadowing, multipath propagation, 
etc. 

Full time rebroadcasting stations may be assigned as Low Power or Very 
Low Power FM (LPFM or VLPFM) stations or they may be assigned as "on-
channel" boosters. As LPFM or VLPFM, these stations are only assigned 
between the 3 mV/m and the 0.5 mV/m contours of the originating station, 
in accordance with Sections D and E, on an unprotected, non-interfering 
basis. As "on-channel" boosters these stations use the same frequency as 
that of the originating station. Moreover, the 0.5 mV/m contour shall not 
extend beyond the 0. 5 mV/m contour of the originating station and the 
ERP shall not exceed 10 % of the ERP of the originating station. 

H-1.3 Requirements 

An application for a broadcasting certificate for a full time 
rebroadcasting station shall be made in accordance with the requirements 
of Sections C, D and E. For on-channel booster applications, no analysis 
need be submitted on the minimum separation distances to other FM 
stations. However, an analysis on the quality of service to be provided 
is required. Both types of rebroadcasting station applications are 
subject to an FM/NAV/COM compatibility analysis. 

APPENDIX 1 Figure 1 

APPENDIX 1 Figure 2 

APPENDIX 1 Figure 3 

  DISTANCE VERSUS DEPRESSION ANGLE (For various antenna heights) 

  DEPRESSION ANGLE (in degrees) 

APPENDIX 2 

  SUMMARY SHEET 

APPLICANT: STATION: NEW 
  STATION LOCATION: CHANGE STATION CALL SIGN: ANTENNA CO-ORDINATES: N. 
  LAT. E E ' " W. LONG. E E ' " 

  TRANSMITTER POWER: kW LINE EFFICIENCY: % ANTENNA POWER GAIN: MAXIMUM AT 
  HORIZONTAL AVERAGE AT HORIZONTAL 

  ERP: MAXIMUM kW (Horizontal/Vertical/circular Polarization) AVERAGE kW 
  (Horizontal/Vertical/circular Polarization) 

  AT BEAM TILT kW Maximum AT BEAM TILT kW Average 

  EHAAT: METRES RCAMSL: METRES CHANNEL NUMBER: FREQUENCY: MHz CLASS OF 
  STATION: MODES: MONO ( ), STEREO ( ), UNATTENDED ( ), AUTOMATIC ( ), 
  SCMO ( ). 

APPENDIX 3 

ELEVATION DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL TOWER AND TRANSMITTING ANTENNA 

APPENDIX 4 Figure 1 

 PARAMETRES EQUIVALENT TO AN EFFECTIVE RADIATED 

 POWER OF 50 WATTS AT A TRANSMITTING ANTENNA HEIGHT OF 60 METRES 

 EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (WATTS) 

APPENDIX 4 Figure 2 
 0.5 MILLIVOLT PER METRE CONTOUR CALCULATOR 

 TRANSMITTING ANTENNA HEIGHT (METRES) 

APPENDIX 4 Figure 3 

 3 MILLIVOLT PER METRE CONTOUR CALCULATOR 

 TRANSMITTING ANTENNA HEIGHT (METRES) 

APPENDIX 5 

 SYSTEMATIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING 

 LPFM CHANNEL AVAILABILITY 

The following presents a systematic method for making a channel search. 

 (a) List the numbers 201 to 300. Channels 201 to 220 should not be 
     considered if there is reception of TV channel 6 in the proposed 
     coverage area, or if there is a channel 6 allotment within 95 km of 
     the LPFM transmitting site. If there is a limitation on the 
     parameters of a channel 6 allotment, this distance may be somewhat 
     reduced. Departmental advice can be sought in this regard. 

 (b) On a suitable map, draw a circle centered at the proposed antenna 
     site with a radius of 144 km (3 mV/m) if Table E-1 is used, or 231 
     km if Table E-2 is used. 

 (c) Using the Canadian FM Allotment Plan for Commercial Channels 
     starting at channel 221 and, if applicable, the Canadian FM 
     Allotment Plan for Non-commercial Educational Channels starting at 
     channel 201 and working up, check for centres located within the 
     circle in (b). Measure on the map the distance to these centres and, 
     using either Table E-1 and or Table E-2, eliminate those channels 
     which allotments to that centre would preclude; e. g. a centre 90 km 
     distant has an allotment listed as 250B. From Table E-1 under Class 
     B, the required separation for co-channel operation is 97 km, but 
     for first adjacent channels it is only 79 km. Thus channel 250 is 
     eliminated from the list in (a). If 0.5 mV/m coverage is wanted, 
     from Table E-2, the required separation for first adjacent channels 
     is 109 km. Thus channels 249, 250 and 251 cannot be used in this 
     example. 

 (d) If there are available channels after eliminating those affected by 
     Canadian allotments, check whether the circle in (b) encloses any 
     U.S. territory. Using the list "U.S. FM Allocations Within 190 
     Miles of the Canada-U.S. Border, Sorted By Channels", check again 
     using either Table E-1 or Table E-2 as desired. If there are still 
     available channels, select one and enter it under Section 2 of the 
     application form as part of the required technical data. 

 (e) If no channels are available using Table E-2, repeat from Step (b) 
     using Table E-1. 

 (f) If no channels are available, based on Table E-1, check whether any 
     channel is eliminated by being less than 8 km short of any required 
     separation, excluding those to other LPFM stations (see Section E-1. 
     4). A proposal based on such a channel might be considered 
     acceptable under these circumstances. 

 (g) If there are still no channels available, the services of a 
     broadcast engineering consultant should be retained to perform a 
     channel search. 

APPENDIX 6 

PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE INTERFERENCE ZONE 

On an appropriately scaled map plot the transmitter sites and do the 
following: 

1. Plot the protected service contour for the assignment or allotment to 
be protected, based on the maximum or other permissible parameters, as 
shown in Section C-1.2. 

2. Plot the interfering contour for the proposed assignment or allotment 
based on its proposed parameters in accordance with the interfering 
signal levels as shown in Section C-1.3. 

3. Mark the two points where the contours intersect. 

4. Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3 except increase the value of each contour 
while maintaining the same protection ratio until the protected and 
interfering contours are tangential. 

5. Draw a line joining the intersection points obtained above. The area 
contained within this line and the protected service contour drawn in 
step 1 defines the interference zone. 

Example 

The following example shows the interference zone between an existing 
Class B station and a proposed Class A station which are short-spaced and 
on second-adjacent channels. 

1. The protected service contour from Section C-1.2 is 54 dBu which 
extends to 65 km. 

2. The interfering contour from Section C-1.3 is 74 dBu. (The extent of 
this contour will vary depending on the proposed operating facilities). 

3. Mark the two points where the contours intersect. 

4. Plot the 56 dBu service contour and the 76 dBu interfering contour and 
mark the two points of intersection. Continue to increase the value of 
the contours, plot them, and mark the intersection points until the 
contours are tangent. 

5. Draw a line joining the intersection points obtained above. The area 
contained within this line and the protected service contour drawn in 
step 1 defines the interference zone. This area is shown cross-hatched in 
the drawing. 

APPENDIX 7 

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FM TO TV CHANNEL 6 PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS 

Object 

To define the factors and to present a method for determining the 
protection requirements for TV channel 6 from FM Broadcasting stations on 
channels 201 to 220 when co-located with TV channel 6 and when located 
outside the Grade B contour of TV channel 6. 

TV Channel 6 Receiver Measurements 

Laboratory measurements were taken on a number of TV receivers to 
determine the level at which the interference from FM signals on channels 
201-220 was viewed as being just perceptible. The results were analyzed 
and the curves are shown attached. The data for the curves was obtained 
from FCC measurements, taken in September 1979, using new TV receivers. 
The data showed an improvement of approximately 6 dB over earlier data. 
The curves show the average FM to TV channel protection ratio for new TV 
receivers for a picture quality of just perceptible interference. Since 
the protection varies with the level of the TV signal, separate curves 
are shown for different TV input levels. 

FM to TV Channel 6 Protection 

The protection to TV channel 6 from FM stations is related to their field 
strength ratio by the following formula: 

where: F is the FM undesired signal and F is the desired TV signal levels 
both is dBu; u d P is the protection ratio in dB obtained from the 
receiver measurement; r G is the value in dB to be added (or subtracted) 
to change the TV grade of picture from the r just perceptible 
interference value to a specified picture quality; 

A is the TV receiving antenna discrimination against the FM signals in 
dB; d L is the adjustment made in dB with respect to the percentage of 
locations where the field strength level will be above the stated value. 

Co-located FM and TV Stations 

For co-located FM and TV stations, the field strength of the TV signal 
will be very high in the vicinity of the TV antenna and therefore outdoor 
receiving antennas are not normally used. Measurement tests have 
indicated that the maximum TV signal into the receiver, using an indoor 
antenna, does not usually exceed -25 dBm. The reduced antenna size 
(rabbit ears) and its reduced height above ground, limit the actual 
level. 

The receiver level of -25 dBm has been used to derive the FM to TV 
protection ratios as shown in Table C-2. It is recognized that a TV 
receiver input level of less than -25 dBm could be used, when justified, 
by the type of receiving antenna and possible shielding effect of the 
type of buildings where the receivers are located. Tests by the NTIA 
(NTIA Report 81-68) have shown that for an indoor antenna, the "antenna 
system gain" (antenna gain over any losses) can be as low as -29 dB 
(loss) for an antenna at a height of 2 metres. This would place the 
receiver input signal at -38 dBm for an incident field of 115 dBu, as 
determined from the F( 50,50) field strength curves. 

For co-located FM and TV transmitter sites, the TV receiving antenna 
provides no discrimination against the FM transmissions for horizontal 
polarization. For this case, the antenna discrimination factor is zero. 
The FM power for vertical polarization can be increased 6 dB above the 
value determined for horizontal polarization. 

The picture quality for coverage inside the Grade A contour is defined as 
a picture of acceptable quality for at least 70 % of the receiving 
locations and 90 % of the time. Using the ITU-R five point impairment 
scale, this acceptable quality has been equated to a picture impairment 
Grade of 4.0. 

Since the laboratory measurements on the TV receivers were performed 
using an interference criterion of just perceptible or a picture 
impairment Grade of 4.5, a correction of 3 dB is required to change to a 
picture impairment Grade of 4.0. Since it is proposed to protect 70 % of 
the receiver locations, which is the same percentage of receiver 
locations as used in the definition of the Grade A contour, a 5 dB 
correction factor is used for "L" to equate the 50 % used in the 
measurements (median value of the ratio) to 70 % of protected receiver 
locations. Table C-2 has been derived using the above factors in equation 
(1). 

FM Stations Outside the Grade B Contour 

For FM stations located outside the Grade B contour, the B contour (F = 
47 dBu) is protected and the FM to d Channel 6 field strength values 
shown in Table C-3 have been calculated using the formula in equation (1) 
with the following considerations: the FM to TV channel 6 protection 
ratio (P ) is based on measured values for a r TV receiver input of -65 
dBm; for the antenna discrimination, a value of 6 dB is used. This value 
represents the performance of an average outdoor antenna as used at 
locations near the Grade B contour. This value has been proposed by the 
IEC Technical Committee No. 12 on radiocommunications for domestic 
receiving antennas. 

The picture quality for coverage within the Grade B Contour is defined as 
a picture of acceptable quality for at least 50 % of the receiving 
locations and 90 % of the time. The acceptable quality has been equated 
to "interference is not annoying". Since it is desirable to have an 
interference which does not degrade the picture, ITU-R picture impairment 
Grade of 4.0 is used. 

To change a ITU-R impairment Grade of 4.5, which is the condition under 
which the TV receivers were measured, to an impairment Grade of 4.0, a 
value of 3 dB for G is used. r 

"L" in the equation represents the adjustment made in dB with respect to 
the percentage of locations in excess of 50 %. By using the F( 50,10) 
propagation curves, and since the interference value is exceeded for 50 % 
of the locations and 10 % of the time, the value of "L" is zero. Table C-
3 has been derived using the above factors in the formula of equation 
(1). 

Step by Step Procedure 

For determining the maximum power of the FM station, when co-located with 
a TV Channel 6, the following are the steps: 

(1) using Table C-2, which shows the permissible power ratio for FM 
channels 201 to 220 included, select the FM to TV power ratio for the 
proposed FM channel; 

(2) using the ERP of the TV station, determine the power of the FM 
station by adding the power ratio in step 1 to the ERP of the TV station 
as converted to dB. If the TV antenna pattern is directional, the 
permissible FM power shall be calculated for the different azimuths; 

(3) if the FM antenna height differs by 30 metres or more from the height 
of the TV antenna, the ERP of the FM antenna shall be adjusted to 
correspond to its equivalent value.

The equivalent value is calculated by the following procedure: using the 
FM ERP as determined in step 2 and the EHAAT for the TV station, 
determine the distance to the FM 100 dBu contour using the F( 50,50) 
field strength curves. Using the same curves, determine the FM ERP that 
will place the 100 dBu contour at this same distance using the EHAAT of 
the FM station. 

For determining the maximum power (ERP) of the FM station, when the 
station is located outside the Grade B contour of the channel 6 TV 
station, the following are the steps involved: 

1) Using Table C-3, which shows the permissible FM field strength level, 
select the field strength level of the proposed FM channel; 

2) from the field strength level in step 1 above, determine the maximum 
ERP using the F( 50,10) propagation curves and the EHAAT of the station. 
The ERP represents the maximum radiation in the direction of the channel 
6 Grade B contour. 

APPENDIX 7 

 FM/CHANNEL 6 PROTECTION RATIOS (Just Perceptible Interference) 

 FM Channel 

APPENDIX 8 

 PROTECTION CRITERIA FM/NAV/COM (Provisional) 

1. INTERFERENCE MECHANISMS AND COMPATIBILITY CRITERIA 

 (a) Type A interference 1 

For the analysis of type A interference, the following two categories of 
spurious emissions exist: 1 

 - spurious emissions resulting from an intermodulation process caused at 
   the transmitter site, e. g. by multiple transmitters feeding the same 
   antenna; 

 - spurious emissions with the exception of those covered by (a). Where 
   the actual frequency of the spurious emission is known, Table I gives 
   the values of protection ratio used for frequency differences up to 
   200 kHz from aeronautical frequencies (radionavigation and 
   radiocommunication). Type A interference need not be considered for 
   frequency differences greater 1 than 200 kHz. 


TABLE I 
   Frequency difference Protection ratio 
   between spurious emission (in dB) 
   and NAV/COM signal (in kHz) 


   0 17 
   50 10 
   100 -4 
   150 -19 
   200 -38 

 (b) Type A interference 2 
  The protection ratio values used are given in TABLE II. 

TABLE II 

    Frequency difference Protection ratio 
   between NAV signal and (in dB) 
   broadcasting signal (kHz) 


   150 -41 
   200 -50 
   250 -59 
   300 -68 
   2( N 1 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 1 ) 0.4 ) % 
   N 2 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 2 ) 0.4 % 120 $ 0 

   N 1 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 1 ) 0.4 % 
   % N 2 & 20log 
   max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 2 ) 

   0.4 % 

   % N 3 & 20log 
   max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 3 ) 


   0.4 % 126 $ 0 

A frequency difference less than 150 kHz cannot occur. For frequency 
differences greater than 300 kHz, this type of interference need not be 
considered. 

Note: FM sound broadcasting stations may in some Regions employ 
compression techniques and/or provide services on subcarrier frequencies 
up to 99 kHz. Bench tests have shown that combinations of these 
practices, especially when associated with a carrier deviation larger 
than  75 kHz, may result in 0 to 10 dB increase in susceptibility to A 
type interference of an ILS receiver. Also, type A interference need 2 2 
not be considered for COM receivers. 

(c) Type B interference 1 
  Third-order intermodulation products of the form: 

 1) f = 2f - f (two-signal case) or intermod 1 2 

 2) f = f + f - f (three-signal case) intermod 1 2 3 with f > f > f , 1 2 
    3 generated in the airborne ILS or VOR receiver will cause an 
    unacceptable degradation of receiver performance, if f coincides with 
    the frequency of the wanted signal and if the inequalities given 
    below intermod are fulfilled. 

Intermodulation of the second order is irrelevant and intermodulation of 
a higher order than three has not been considered. 

1) Two-signal case 

2) Three-signal case 

N , N and N have the following meaning: 1 2 3 

N : level (dBm) of the broadcasting signal of frequency f (MHz) at the 
input of the NAV receiver; 1 1 

N : level (dBm) of the broadcasting signal of frequency f (MHz) at the 
input of the NAV receiver; 2 2 

N : level (dBm) of the broadcasting signal of frequency f (MHz) at the 
input of the NAV receiver. 3 3 

max( 0.4; 108.1 - f) means either 0.4 or 108.1 - f, whichever is greater. 

Frequency offset conditions 

When the intermod product falls close to the frequency of the wanted 
signal, a correction is applied to each signal level which is a function 
of the frequency difference between the NAV signal and the 
intermodulation product. This correction is given in TABLE III. 

N (corrected) = N -correction term. 1,2,3 1,2,3 

TABLE III 

     Frequency difference Correction term 
    between NAV signal and (in dB) 
    intermodulation product (kHz) 

    0 0 
    50 2 
    100 8 
    150 16 
    200 26 

For frequency differences beyond  200 kHz, type B interference need not 
be considered. For COM 1 receivers, the Venn diagram method (see ITU-IR 
relevant publications) is now used pending a recommendation by Study 
Group 12. 

 (d) Type B interference 2 

TABLE IV contains maximum permitted levels of broadcasting signals at the 
input to the airborne ILS or VOR receiver. 

   TABLE IV 
   Frequency of broadcasting Level 
   signal (MHz) (in dBm) 


   107.9 -20 
   106 -5 
   102 5 
   # 100 10 

For intermediate values, the maximum permitted level is determined by 
linear interpolation. For COM receivers, the level of any FM signal 
should not exceed -10 dBm. 


2. SELECTION OF AERONAUTICAL TEST POINTS 
For a test point height of: 

 - 2450 m ASL for ILS, 

 - 12200 m ASL for VOR, 

TABLE V gives separation distances between a broadcasting station with 
given ERP and frequency and the test point of an aeronautical 
radionavigation station beyond which it is considered unlikely that the 
service of the aeronautical station could be affected. The more critical 
requirements are those for A and B : the higher of the 1 1 two separation 
distances is shown in the Table V. 


 In general, broadcasting stations which are: 

 - more than 500 km from a VOR/COM test point, 

 - more than 255 km from an ILS test point, or 

 - beyond the radio line-of-sight from a VOR or ILS test point, 
   are considered as being unlikely to affect the service of 
   that aeronautical radionavigation station. 

TABLE V 

Separation distance (km) between a test point of a radionavigation 
station and an FM broadcasting station beyond which the aeronautical 
service is unlikely to be affected. 

Effective radiated power of Broadcasting station frequency (MHz) 
broadcasting station # 100 102 104 105 106 107 107.9 

   (dBW) (kW) distance (km) 
   55 300 125 210 400 500 500 500 500 
   50 100 75 120 230 340 500 500 500 
   45 30 40 65 125 190 310 500 500 
   40 10 25 40 70 105 180 380 500 
   35 3 20 20 40 60 95 210 500 
   30 1 20 20 25 35 55 120 370 
   25 0.30 20 20 20 20 30 65 200 
   20 0.10 20 20 20 20 20 40 115 
   # 15 # 0.03 20 20 20 20 20 20 65 

3. COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENTS 

It has not been possible to identify a single method for the assessment 
of compatibility which is applicable in all of the situations encountered 
in practice. A number of administrations have developed particular 
assessment methods and procedures for application within their own 
country. In Canada, an interference prediction model, based on the 
compatibility criteria given in 1. (work of ITU-R's JIWP 8-10/1), is used 
pending a final resolution of this matter.