from: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/SSI/sf/bpr3-e.pdf BPR, Part III October 1991 Part III: Application Procedures and Rules for FM Broadcasting Undertakings Contains Amendments as per: Change Notice 91a: "Assessment and Control of Maximum Field Strength - Notification Procedure to Local Municipalities", February 1991 Change Notice 91c: "FM/NAV/COM Compatibility", February 1991 Change Notice 91f: "FM Regional Stations/FM Rebroadcasting Stations", September 1991 SECTION A: INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS (90-4) SECTION B: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR FM BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ASSIGNMENTS (90-4) B-1 APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS (90-4) B-1.1 Requirements (90-4) B-2 ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS (90-4) B-2.1 Title Page (90-4) B-2.2 Table of Contents (90-4) B-2.3 Summary Sheet (90-4) B-2.4 Main Section of Brief (90-4) B-2.5 Diagrams (90-4) B-2.6 Vertical Radiation Pattern (90-4) B-2.7 Horizontal Radiation Pattern (90-4) B-2.8 Profiles of Ground Elevation (90-4) B-2.9 Maps (90-4) B-3 APPLICATIONS FOR STEREOPHONIC BROADCASTING (90-4) B-4 APPLICATIONS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEX OPERATION (SCMO) (90-4) B-4.1 Application Requirements (90-4) B-5 DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT (90-4) B-6 TECHNICAL OPERATION OF BROADCAST TRANSMITTER PLANTS (90-4) B-7 ON-AIR TESTING PROCEDURE (90-4) B-8 FM/NAV/COM COMPATIBILITY (91-2) B-8.1 Preamble (91-2) B-8.2 Types of Interference Mechanisms (91-2) B-8.3 Interference Analysis (91-2) B-8.4 Interference Prediction Model (91-2) SECTION C: TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FM BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ALLOTMENTS (90-4) C-1 ALLOTMENT PRINCIPLES (91-9) C-1.1 Definitions (91-9) C-1.2 Allotment Principles (Domestic) (90-4) C-1.3 Protection Ratios and Permissible Interfering Signals (90-4) C-1.4 Separation Distances Between Co-channel and Adjacent Channel Allotments (90-4) C-1.5 Short Spaced Allotments and Assignments (90-4) C-1.6 Channels Separated by 800 kHz (90-4) C-2 CHANGES TO THE TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS (90-4) C-2.1 Types of Changes (90-4) C-2.2 Impact on the Plan (90-4) C-2.3 Application Requirements (90-4) C-2.4 Incompatibilities (90-4) C-2.5 Allotment Planning (90-4) C-3 CONTOUR DETERMINATION (90-4) C-3.1 Introduction (90-4) C-3.2 Prediction of Coverage (90-4) C-3.3 The Location of Service Contours (90-4) C-4 COMPUTATION OF DISTANCE AND AZIMUTH (90-4) C-5 ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF MAXIMUM FIELD STRENGTH OF FM BROADCASTING STATIONS (90-11) C-5.1 Introduction (90-11) C-5.2 Purpose (90-11) C-5.3 Requirements for Interference Analyses and Population Estimates (90-11) C-5.4 Method for Calculating High Field Strength Contours (90-11) C-5.5 Broadcaster's Responsibility (90-11) C-5.6 List of Complaints Judged Not Valid by Industry Canada (90-11) C-6 POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE TO TV FROM FM BROADCASTING STATION ASSIGNMENTS (90-4) C-6.1 Second Harmonic Interference (90-4) C-6.2 Interference to Channel 6 from FM Broadcasting Stations on Channels 201-220 (90-4) C-7 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEX OPERATION (90-4) C-7.1 Preamble (90-4) C-7.2 Definitions (90-4) C-7.3 Multiplex Transmission Standards (90-4) C-8 USE OF DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT (90-4) C-9 DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS (90-4) C-10 TRANSMITTER LOCATIONS (90-4) SECTION D: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS REQUIRED WITH THE APPLICATIONS FOR LOW POWER FM (LPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS (90-4) D-1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE (90-11) D-1.1 Preamble (90-4) D-1.2 Requirements (90-4) D-1.3 Notifying the Local Municipality (90-11) D-2 ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS (90-4) D-2.1 Summary Sheet (90-4) D-2.2 Introduction (90-4) D-2.3 Transmitting Channel (90-4) D-2.4 Received Channel (90-4) D-2.5 System Description and Design (90-4) D-2.6 Equipment (90-4) D-2.7 Service Area Calculations and Contour Map (90-4) D-2.8 Predicted Quality of Service (90-4) SECTION E: TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LOW POWER FM STATIONS ON UNPROTECTED CHANNELS (90-4) E-1 TECHNICAL CRITERIA (90-4) E-1.1 Conditions (90-4) E-1.2 Status with Regard to Interference to and from other Stations (90-4) E-1.3 Choice of Frequency (90-4) E-1.4 Separations Less than the Minimum (90-4) E-2 QUALITY OF REBROADCAST SIGNAL (90-4) E-3 COVERAGE PREDICTIONS (90-4) SECTION F: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR LOW POWER FM (VLPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS IN SMALL REMOTE COMMUNITIES (90-4) F-1 APPLICATION PROCEDURES (90-11) F-1.1 Application Form (90-4) F-1.2 Antenna Site and Height Clearance Form (90-4) F-1.3 Notifying the Local Municipality (90-11) SECTION G: TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VERY LOW POWER FM STATIONS (VLPFM) IN SMALL REMOTE COMMUNITIES (90-4) G-1 TECHNICAL CRITERIA (90-4) G-1.1 Conditions (90-4) G-1.2 Selection of Frequency (90-4) G-1.3 Interference (90-4) G-1.4 Service and Coverage Guidelines (90-4) SECTION H: PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR FM REBROADCASTING STATIONS (91-9) H-1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE (91-9) H-1.1 Preamble (91-9) H-1.2 Conditions of Assignment (91-9) H-1.3 Requirements (91-9) APPENDIX 1 FIGURE 1: PROPAGATION CURVES F( 50,50) FOR FM (90-4) FIGURE 2: PROPAGATION CURVES F( 50,10) FOR FM (90-4) FIGURE 3: DEPRESSION ANGLE VERSUS DISTANCE (90-4) APPENDIX 2 SUMMARY SHEET (90-4) APPENDIX 3 ELEVATION DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL TOWER AND TRANSMITTING ANTENNA (90-4) APPENDIX 4 FIGURE 1: CURVE OF EQUIVALENT PARAMETERS FOR LPFM (90-4) FIGURE 2: 0.5 mV/m CONTOUR CALCULATOR (90-4) FIGURE 3: 3 mV/m CONTOUR CALCULATOR (90-4) APPENDIX 5 SYSTEMATIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING LPFM CHANNEL AVAILABILITY (90-4) APPENDIX 6 PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE THE INTERFERENCE ZONE (90-4) APPENDIX 7 PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FM TO TV CHANNEL 6 PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS (90-4) APPENDIX 8 FM/NAV/COM COMPATIBILITY (Provisional) (91-2) SECTION A INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS Within 320 km of the Canada-United States border, FM broadcasting allotments and assignments in Canada are subject to the terms of the "Revision of the Working Arrangement for Allotment and Assignment of FM Broadcasting Channels 201-300 Under the Canadian-U. S. A. FM Broadcasting Agreement of 1984". The working arrangement between the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Industry Canada (formerly Department of Communications) states the basis upon which both Administrations propose to consider responses to border area allotments and assignments. It also defines technical criteria for the notification of FM allotments and assignments. Acceptance of such allotments or assignments shall be obtained from the United States before authorization to implement the Canadian proposals is granted. The working arrangement also contains lists of the Canadian and U. S. A. allotments within their respective co-ordination zones. These lists are updated annually. It should be noted that applications for new assignments or changes in facilities of existing Canadian stations, within 320 km of the common border, have to meet both domestic and bilateral criteria. FM assignments other than low power and very low power stations (refer to Section C-1). 1 Form 16-2 is presently under review. The new title will refer to Broadcasting Certificate instead of TC & 2 OC. SECTION B PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR FM BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ASSIGNMENTS 1 B-1 APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS B-1.1 Requirements B-1.1.1 This Section outlines the departmental forms that shall be submitted when applying for a primary FM assignment. It also applies to applications where Subsidiary Communication Multiplex Operation (SCMO) is proposed. B-1.1.2 An application for a broadcasting certificate shall be made on departmental Form 16-2 "Application 2 for a Technical Construction and Operating Certificate for a New FM Broadcasting Transmitting Station". An application for changes to an existing station requires the submission of Form 16-5 "Application for Authority to Change the Facilities of an FM Broadcasting Transmitting Station". An application form for a broadcasting licence is obtainable from the Canadian Radio- television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). The two applications shall be filed simultaneously. B-1.1.3 All necessary forms may be obtained from any departmental regional office (Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, Moncton) or from departmental headquarters in Ottawa. All addresses are provided in APPENDIX 1 of BPR-I. B-1.1.4 A complete technical submission shall include the following: (a) two copies of the appropriate Form 16-2 or 16-5; (b) five copies of an engineering brief in suitable loose-leaf binders with identifying labels. The brief should be carefully prepared and include all the detailed technical information as outlined in Section B-2; (c) two copies of the departmental Form 16-653 "Notice of Retention of Broadcast Engineering Consultant" (refer to BPR-I, Section 1.2); d) one reproducible copy of a map showing the pertinent field strength contours (refer to BPR-I, Section 3) and another one showing the "comparative contours" for the change of facilities. B-1.1.5 Three copies of Department of Transport (DOT) Form 26-0427 entitled "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form" shall be completed. Topographic maps showing the elevation contours and the exact location of the antenna site as set forth in section 2 or BPR-I shall be attached. All shall be submitted directly to the Regional Office of DOT for clearance. A copy of DOT's letter of aeronautical approval shall be sent to Industry Canada. Form 26-0427 is obtainable from the Regional Office of the Department of Transport or Industry Canada. B-2 ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS The order of material presented in the engineering brief should be maintained as listed below to simplify processing in the Department. The metric system known as SI (SystŔme International) shall be used throughout the engineering brief. B-2.1 Title Page The title page should include the submission title, project or reference number, date, name and address of applicant, name of consultant and location of the station. The following parameters of the proposal shall also be listed: frequency, maximum and average effective radiated power (ERP) and effective antenna height above average terrain (EHAAT). B-2.2 Table of Contents (Index) To be prepared as cross-reference to pages and sections of the brief. B-2.3 Summary Sheet To be prepared as per APPENDIX 2 attached. B-2.4 Main Section of Brief B-2.4.1 Introduction - A general statement of the purpose of the brief in relation to the application, including the principal centre( s) to be served with the proposed grade of service. B-2.4.2 Discussion - There should be a discussion on the design considerations necessary to accomplish the applicant's objectives, including the location of site, and choice of frequency (here the consultant should be guided by the requirements set forth in Section C). B-2.4.3 Interference Analysis - An analysis of interference to related station( s) and allotment( s) is required as detailed in Sections C-1, C-5 and C-6. B-2.4.4 Assumptions and Sources of Information -List and explain all assumptions and sources of information used in compiling the engineering brief. B-2.4.5 Transmitter - The intent to use a type-approved transmitter( s) in accordance with Radio Standards Specification (RSS) No. 153 shall be made clear, either by specifying the make, model and type-approval number, or by a statement that the transmitter will be type-approved prior to on-air operation. The rated power of the transmitter shall be specified. B-2.4.6 Description of Antenna System - The following details are required: Antenna - Manufacturer, type, number of sections (if applicable) power gain and vertical radiation pattern. For directional antennas, the horizontal pattern is also required. Transmission Line - Manufacturer, type, length in metres, and efficiency. Combiner - Manufacturer and operational characteristics. Polarization - Horizontal, vertical, circular or elliptical polarization as proposed. B-2.4.7 Ancillary Equipment - All other equipment shall be listed. B-2.4.8 Determination of the location of Service Contours - The location of service contours shall be determined by the method as detailed in Section C-3 and Section 3 of BPR-I. The contours to be determined are: 3 mV/m (70 dBu) and 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu). In cases where proposed FM stations are located in areas of mountainous terrain or in the proximity of other natural obstacles, an additional analysis will be necessary to establish more realistic locations for the service contours. In preparing contour maps for these cases, the contours as determined from the standard method (refer to Section C-3) above should also be shown on the map with broken lines. B-2.4.9 Special Analyses and Undertakings Relative to Interference to Other Broadcast Services -Analyses shall be submitted with appropriate undertakings made in regard to all potential interference situations with other broadcasting stations as a result of the operation of the proposed FM facility. The following are some examples of interference possibilities with other broadcasting services which should be explored for each proposal: (a) "Ghost" reflections of television signals from the new FM antenna structure (refer to Section C-7, BPR-IV); (b) distortion of AM radiation patterns by the new FM tower located in the vicinity of an AM antenna array; (c) isolation of AM, TV and FM transmissions, where such services are co-located; (d) interference to television service due to harmonics of the FM operation (Section C-6.1); (e) interference to TV channel 6 from broadcasting stations on FM channels 201 to 220 (Section C-6.2); (f) intermodulation with other broadcasting services in the vicinity of the proposed station (Section C-5); (g) assessment and control of maximum field strengths for FM broadcasting stations: the 100 and 115 dBu contours shall be determined and shown on a suitable map (Section C-5); (h) the use of fourth adjacent channels allotted to the same centre (Section C-1.6); (i) interference to low power and very low power FM assignments. Although these are unprotected assignments, they should be notified of potential interference to their service. Such notification shall be made by letter to the affected broadcaster with a copy forwarded to the Department. Note: The potential interference under (a) shall be assessed when the proposed antenna structure is in excess of 30 metres and within a distance of 500 metres of a TV station. B-2.5 Diagrams An elevation diagram of the structure and transmitting antenna as per APPENDIX 3 and a block diagram of major units of the transmitting system is to be included in the engineering brief. B-2.6 Vertical Radiation Pattern The vertical radiation pattern of the antenna (relative field versus degrees below the horizontal) shall be plotted from 0 to 90 E below the horizontal. B-2.7 Horizontal Radiation Pattern If a directional antenna is employed, the horizontal radiation pattern is required. True north and r. m. s. field shall also be clearly indicated on polar plots of the horizontal radiation pattern. When a directional pattern is proposed, the brief should contain a letter from the manufacturer stating that the proposed pattern can be achieved. If the application is approved, the pattern shall be certified by means of range tests, scale-modelling or other recognized engineering methods. The margin of accuracy shall also be provided. Note: Title blocks shall be placed on radiation patterns for directional antenna systems since in some instances, for areas along the Canada-U. S. A. border, it may be necessary to submit this material separately when notifying the assignment to the U. S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The title block shall include the identification of the station, frequency, maximum and average ERP and date. B-2.8 Profiles of Ground Elevation For the preparation of profile radials, refer to "Contour Determination" in Section C-3. B-2.9 Maps B-2.9.1 A map (scale 1: 50,000) shall be provided with the proposed antenna site marked thereon and its geographical co-ordinates (latitude and longitude) shown. B-2.9.2 A map showing the service area contours as required in Section B-2.4.8, shall be provided. For further details concerning the preparation of maps for engineering briefs, refer to Section 3 "Preparation of Field Strength Contour Maps" in the BPR-I. B-3 APPLICATIONS FOR STEREOPHONIC BROADCASTING Applications proposing stereophonic transmission shall include a signed statement by the consultant, that the equipment and installation will meet the standards for stereophonic broadcasting described in Radio Standards Specification (RSS) No. 153. B-4 APPLICATIONS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEX OPERATION (SCMO) B-4.1 Application Requirements An FM broadcasting undertaking wishing to initiate Subsidiary Communication Multiplex Operations (SCMO) shall submit the following information to the Department for an amendment to the broadcasting certificate. B-4.1.1 A description of the equipment which is proposed for subsidiary communication transmissions, including: (a) a description of the programme source and the method of modulating the multiplex subcarrier( s); (b) the frequency or frequencies of the multiplex subcarrier(s); (c) a description of the means used to ensure that the technical requirements are being adequately met; B-4.1.2 A description of the modifications necessary to the FM transmitter to effect the multiplex transmissions; B-4.1.3 The method and equipment used for monitoring the transmissions; B-4.1.4 A signed statement by a consultant that the proposed facilities will meet the standards set forth in Section C-7 and in Radio Standards Specification (RSS) No. 153. B-5 DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT Although the Department at present does not intend to regulate the use of the Dolby noise reduction equipment, it wishes to remain aware of the extent of its use. Accordingly, a broadcasting station which installs the Dolby equipment shall notify the Department. Such notification shall be made by letter to the Director, Broadcast Applications Engineering with a copy forwarded to the appropriate regional office. B-6 TECHNICAL OPERATION OF BROADCAST TRANSMITTER PLANTS A description of the technical equipment in compliance with the minimum requirements specified in Section 5. 3 of BPR-I shall be submitted at the latest prior to on-air tests for the approved facility. If unattended operation is proposed, a statement that the unattended operation meets the minimum requirements of Section 5.3 of BPR-I is required. BPR-III-B-11 90-4 B-7 ON-AIR TESTING PROCEDURE When the construction of the authorized facilities is complete, notice of on-air testing shall be given to the District Manager at least three weeks (unless otherwise specified in the letter of authority) prior to transmission tests. Departmental permission from the District Office is required for testing. During on-air tests, identification of the station shall be made preferably at fifteen minute intervals, giving as a minimum the call sign, frequency and location of the station. In the case of rebroadcasting stations without capability to originate the aforementioned information, the broadcaster will be responsible for making the public aware that the new station is being tested. As an example, a notice could be placed in the local press which would explain that the broadcaster should be contacted in the event of interference difficulties that might develop. The broadcaster shall implement any instruction given by departmental representatives at the district, regional or headquarters level. The required scope and duration of such on-air emission tests will depend to a large extent on the potential for interference that might be caused to existing broadcasting stations or other radio services. Such details of the testing shall be agreed upon with the local District Manager shortly after the issuance of the letter of authority. Following successful on-air tests, the applicant's consultant shall certify to Industry Canada that the station is ready to commence operation in accordance with the approved technical submission and request permission to commence normal broadcasting schedule. B-8 FM/NAV/COM COMPATIBILITY B-8.1 Preamble Aeronautical radio-navigation and communications (NAV/COM) Services in North America are assigned in the frequency band 108 -137 MHz, upper adjacent to the FM band. As a result, there exists a potential for interference to these aeronautical services. B-8.2 Types of Interference Mechanisms B-8.2.1 Type A interference -normally radiated by FM stations. (a) Type A -spurious emissions generated by a single transmitter or intermodulation products 1 generated by multiplexed transmitters, falling in the aeronautical frequency bands. (b) Type A -FM sideband energy falling in the aeronautical frequency bands (only from FM 2 transmitters operating near 108 MHz). B-8.2.2 Type B interference - normally generated in the aeronautical receiver. (a) Type B - intermodulation generated as a result of two or more FM signals whose product falls 1 on a wanted RF channel in use by the aeronautical receiver. Note that at least one FM signal must be large enough to drive the receiver into non-linearity. (b) Type B - overload of the RF section of an aeronautical receiver due to one or more FM signals, 2 leading to desensitization. Protection criteria are found in APPENDIX 8. B-8.3 Interference Analysis B-8.3.1 Each application for an FM transmitting undertaking (primary or secondary assignment) is subject to an FM/NAV/COM compatibility analysis. Depending on the result, the following may take place: (a) if no interference is predicted, it is presumed that compatibility exists, (b) if the potential for interference is low, a conditional technical acceptance is granted subject to: - monitoring during on-air testing of the station, or occasionally, - flight tests during on- air testing of a station in complex electromagnetic environments, (c) if the potential for interference is high, the engineering brief is considered not acceptable and the application is returned. B-8.3.2 When conditional technical acceptance is given, the applicant is notified accordingly. If the application is approved by the CRTC (also conditionally), the letter of authority issued by Industry Canada will identify the nature of the required tests. It will also specify the period required as notice to the Industry canada before the on-air testing takes place. Adherence to the terms of the notice is mandatory. Monitoring may be undertaken by this Department or the Department of Transport or both. Flight tests are conducted by both Industry Canada and DOT. Testing is conducted under the supervision of Industry Canada or DOT or both and broadcasters shall co-operate fully. B-8.3.3 The FM station shall test at the authorized parametres and pass the monitoring and/or flight tests before it is authorized to start normal scheduled broadcasting. However, if interference is detected, remedial measures shall be taken to eliminate the interference. If interference is not eliminated, authority for scheduled on-air broadcasting will be denied. B-8.3.4 If interference to NAV/COM facilities is caused by the FM station during scheduled on-air broadcasting, the holder of the broadcasting certificate will take remedial measures to eliminate the interference, even to the extent of closing down the station, if so requested by Industry Canada. B-8.4 Interference Prediction Model At present, compatibility analyses are undertaken by departmental staff. Interpretation of the results is also accomplished by staff of Industry Canada and DOT. Protection criteria are not final and work on this aspect is continuing at the international level, under the umbrella of the ITU-R. Canada is an active participant. Industry Canada has developed a refined interference prediction method. This method would serve as a design tool for FM and aeronautical frequency assignments. A version of the software, designed for personal computers, will be offered to broadcast engineering consultants. SECTION C TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FM BROADCASTING STATIONS USING PRIMARY ALLOTMENTS C-1 ALLOTMENT PRINCIPLES This Section pertains to the technical requirements for the allotment and protection of FM channels and for the prediction of coverage for FM broadcasting stations in Canada. C-1.1 Definitions C-1.1.1 Allocation The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) uses the word 'allocation' in reference to the provision of a band of frequencies for a particular purpose or service. C-1.1.2 Allotment An 'allotment' is the provision of a specific channel for a particular community. A list of current Canadian allotments is published by Industry Canada. C-1.1.3 Assignment An 'assignment' is the authorized use of an allotment by an FM station. C-1.1.4 Primary Assignment A primary assignment is a protected assignment authorized or operating on an allotment with one of the classes listed in Section C-1.1.14, i. e., A1, A, B, C1 or C. C-1.1.5 Secondary Assignment A secondary assignment is an unprotected assignment authorized or operating on a channel in accordance with Sections E or G, i. e., LPFM or VLPFM. C-1.1.6 Effective Radiated Power (ERP) The effective radiated power (ERP) is the product of the transmitter output power, the transmission line (and combiner) efficiency and the power gain of the antenna relative to a half-wave dipole. C-1.1.7 Effective Height of the Antenna above Average Terrain (EHAAT) The effective height of the antenna above average terrain (EHAAT) is the average of the antenna heights above the average terrain (HAATs) for eight radials spaced every 45 degrees of azimuth starting with true north. The height of the antenna above average terrain (HAAT) is the height of the centre of radiation of the antenna above the average elevation of the terrain between 3 to 16 km from the antenna for each radial. C-1.1.8 Maximum Permissible Parameters Maximum permissible parameters are the values of the maximum ERP and the associated EHAAT for the four classes of stations as listed in Sections C-1.1.14 and C-1.1.17. C-1.1.9 Operating Parameters The operating parameters are the values of the ERP and EHAAT at which an FM station is authorized to operate. C-1.1.10 Limited Allotment A limited allotment is a channel on which an FM station, for purposes of protection, is required to operate with less than maximum parameters. A limitation may apply in one or more directions. C-1.1.11 Unlimited Allotment An unlimited allotment is a channel on which a station may operate with maximum parameters. Any allotment, on which a station could operate with maximum parameters by virtue of spacing, may qualify as an unlimited allotment and may be co-ordinated as such. C. 1.1.12 Antenna Pattern For horizontal non-directional patterns, variations shall be contained within the 2 dB limit from the average value (perfect circle). If these limits are exceeded, the pattern is considered directional. The calculated 1 mV/m contour remains at the same location when equivalent parameters are used. 3 BPR-III-C-3 90-4 C-1.1.13 FM Channels FM broadcast channels are allotted in the band 88 to 108 MHz with 200 kHz spacing. The channel center frequencies begin at 88.1 MHz (Channel 201) and continue in successive steps up to and including 107.9 MHz (Channel 300). In Canada channels 201-220 inclusive are designated for non-commercial, educational broadcasting undertakings (there is no such designation for LPFM and VLPFM undertakings). The Department requests that the CRTC determine whether an applicant qualifies under this designation. C-1.1.14 Classification and Maximum Permissible Parameters of Allotments and Assignments The class of an FM channel is defined by the maximum permissible ERP and the associated EHAAT. The FM classes are as follows: Class A1: a maximum ERP or 250 W with an EHAAT of 100 metres. Class A: a maximum ERP of 3 kW with an EHAAT of 100 metres. Class B: a maximum ERP of 50 kW with an EHAAT of 150 metres. Class C1: a maximum ERP of 100 kW with an EHAAT of 300 metres. Class C: a maximum ERP of 100 kW with an EHAAT of 600 metres. The maximum ERP is calculated using the maximum value of radiation from the antenna in the plane of maximum radiation and in the direction of maximum radiation for directional antennas. An assignment made on an allotment having any of the above class designations is considered to be a "primary" assignment. An unprotected assignment made on an allotment having any of the above class designation is considered a secondary assignment. C-1.1.15 Minimum Operating Parameters The minimum operating parameters of a class are the lower limits of the operating parameters allowed for that class, and they are as follows: Class A1: an ERP of 51 W with no minimum on EHAAT. Class A: an ERP of 251 W with an EHAAT of 100 metres or equivalent Class B: an ERP of 3 kW with an EHAAT of 150 metres or equivalent Class C or C1: an ERP of 20 kW with an EHAAT of 300 metres or equivalent For directional antenna patterns, the ERP values above relate to the maximum value of the pattern. Unless exceptional circumstances warrant it, an FM assignment should be designed to operate preferably above the minima defined in this paragraph. The calculated 1 mV/m contour remains at the same location when equivalent parameters are used. C-1.1.16 Antenna Height and Power Equivalence Where antenna heights exceed the values shown in C-1.1.14, the effective radiated power shall be reduced to provide equivalence with the maximum or other permissible parameters. In addition, where 4 applicable, it is required that the interference zone for equivalent parameters not exceed that determined by the F( 50,10) propagation curves using the maximum or other permissible parameters. Equivalence requires that the 1 mV/m contour remains at the same location. In calculating equivalence, the EHAAT should be used to determine the permissible ERP. Note that equivalence based on individual HAATs in the eight standard azimuths is not acceptable. Where a limitation is concerned, the HAAT in the pertinent direction (either derived from a terrain profile in the standard manner or interpolated from the two adjacent standard HAATs) should be used to determine the permissible ERP. C-1.1.17 Permissible Interference to Unassigned Allotments Due to Short Spacing Proposed assignments may not produce an interference area within the following radii of unassigned allotments, assuming that the allotment would be assigned at maximum parameters for its class: Class A1: a distance of 12 km. Class A: a distance of 24 km. Class B: a distance of 50 km. Class C1: a distance of 72 km. Class C: a distance of 86 km. The above should not be interpreted as a reduction in the 0.5 mV/m contour to the reduced radii for unassigned allotments. Rather, when making an interference analysis (as per APPENDIX 6), the interference area and the service contour at the reduced extension should be tangential. If an unassigned short-spaced allotment is already limited and the 0.5 mV/m contour extends beyond the above distances, interference areas are permitted to distances down to the values outlined above. However, if the 0.5 mV/m contour extends less than the above radii, no further interference is permitted. Any populated area defined as city, town, locality etc. as per Energy, Mines and Resources Canada 5 maps. C-1.1.18 Service Contours and Coverage Requirements The service contours of a primary FM assignment are the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) and 3 mV/m (70 dBu) contours. The distance from the station to the service contours is determined using the F( 50,50) curves in Figure 1 of the APPENDIX 1 and Section C-3 on contour determination. (a) A minimum field strength of 3 mV/m is required for satisfactory service to principal target centres . If however, the service requirements are for a regional station and the applicant 5 specifically states that this is the purpose of the station, the 3 mV/m contour is not required. (b) A minimum field strength of 0.5 mV/m is required for satisfactory service to secondary target centres , where the reception is achieved by outdoor receiving antennas. For a regional station, 5 the 0.5 mV/m contour is the only contour required for service. The dBu is the field strength in dB above one microvolt per metre (1uV/m). C-1.1.19 Protected Contour The protected contour of a primary FM assignment is the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) contour. This contour is protected up to the maximum distances indicated in Section C-1.2.2 for unlimited allotments. When the FM assignment uses a limited allotment, protection is defined by the limitation( s). Other conditions which can limit the distance to the protected contour are given in Sections C-1.1.17 and C-1.2. C-1.1.20 Interfering Signal Contour The interfering signal contour of a primary FM assignment is the maximum signal value permitted at the protected contours of other allotments and assignments (refer to Section C-1.3). The distance to the interference contour is determined using the F( 50,10) curves of Figure 2 of the APPENDIX 1. For distances less than 15 km, the F( 50,50) curves of Figure 1 may be used. Note that when antenna beam tilt is proposed, the ERP in the plane of tilt shall be used. C-1.1.21 Antenna Beam Tilt (Electrical and Mechanical) Antenna beam tilt is the inclination in degrees of the horizontal radiation pattern of the antenna which causes the maximum radiation to occur at an angle below the horizontal plane. The beam tilt may be achieved by mechanical or electrical means. The maximum permissible ERP, as defined in C-1.1.14 and C-1.1.16 shall not be exceeded in either the horizontal or tilt planes. Based on an ERP of 100 kW and an EHAAT of 450 metres. C-1.1.22 Polarization The polarization of the radiated signal is the orientation of the electric component of the electromagnetic field as radiated from the transmitting antenna. Circular polarization is normally used, however, horizontal, vertical or elliptical polarization may also be used. Where vertical polarization only is used, justification shall be provided. In any plane of polarization the ERP shall not exceed that defined in C-1.1.14 and C-1.1.16. C-1.1.23 Distances to Various Contours In this Procedure, the distances to various contours, including service, interfering or equivalence contours, can be calculated with the F( 50,50) and F( 50,10) curves of APPENDIX 1 or with the F50M software. However, if there is a disagreement between the two methods, the results obtained with the F50M software will prevail. C-1.2 Allotment Principles (Domestic) (For international channel relationships refer to; "Working Arrangement for Allotment and Assignment of FM Broadcast Channels 201-300"). C-1.2.1 Subject to the provisions listed in this Section, FM allotments are protected to their 0.5 mV/m contour as determined by the F( 50, 50) propagation curves of Figure 1 of APPENDIX 1 together with the ERP and the HAAT for each of the eight radials. For very irregular terrain, the local topography may be taken into account in calculating the contour. C-1.2.2 Protection is only afforded to land areas and shall not extend beyond the following distances from the transmitting site; Class Distance (km) Field Strength A1 18 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) A 33 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) B 65 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) C1 86 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) C 97 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) Class C channels, whose 0.5 mV/m contour extends beyond 97 km, are permitted if protection to related assignments and allotments is provided. C-1.2.3 The protected contour of an unoccupied limited allotment is determined using the limited parameters in all directions or in the direction( s) of limitation where applicable. Protection should be provided on the basis of a practical directional antenna meeting the limitation( s). C-1.2.4 Where the protected contour extends beyond the boundary of the country in which the allotment is located, protection will be provided only to land areas, including islands, lying within that country. In this case, overlap of the interfering and the protected service contours may be acceptable provided that the interference zone does not fall within these areas. APPENDIX 6 describes the procedure to determine the interference zone. C-1.3 Protection Ratios and Permissible Interfering Signals C-1.3.1 Protection ratios and the corresponding permissible interfering field strength levels (F( 50,10)) at the protected contour of another frequency related assignment or allotment are given in the following table: D/U Protection Channel relationship Ratio (dB) Field strength Co-channel 20 0.05 mV/m (34 dBu) First adjacent 6 0.25 mV/m (48 dBu) Second adjacent -20 5.00 mV/m (74 dBu) Third adjacent -40 50.00 mV/m (94 dBu) C-1.4 Separation Distances Between Co-channel and Adjacent Channel Allotments The following table specifies the minimum separation distances in kilometres for the five classes of channel assignments, using the protected contour levels as shown in Section C-1.2 and the interfering signal levels shown in Section C-1. 3 (the appropriate contours for Class C channels are based on an ERP of 100 kW and an EHAAT of 450 metres). Class A1 Co-Channel 78 200 kHz 45 400 kHz 24 600 kHz 20 10.6/10.8 MHz 4 Class A Co-Channel 117 132 200 kHz 69 85 400 kHz 39 45 600 kHz 35 37 10.6/10.8 MHz 6 8 Class B Co-Channel 190 206 237 200 kHz 117 132 164 400 kHz 71 76 94 600 kHz 67 69 74 10.6/10.8 MHz 14 16 24 Class C1 Co-Channel 224 239 271 292 200 kHz 148 164 195 217 400 kHz 92 98 115 134 600 kHz 88 90 95 101 10.6/10.8 MHz 26 32 40 48 Class C Co-channel 238 254 286 307 318 200 kHz 167 182 214 235 246 400 kHz 103 109 126 144 155 600 kHz 99 102 106 111 115 10.6/10,8 MHz 26 32 40 48 48 Relationship Class A1 Class A Class B Class C1 Class C TABLE C-1: Table of Minimum Separation Distances (km) C-1.5 Short Spaced Allotments and Assignments C-1.5.1 Allotments and assignments in the Plan which do not meet the Table of Minimum Separation Distances may be subject to an interference zone within their 0.5 mV/m contour (maximum parameter conditions). Interference zones should be drawn as shown in APPENDIX 6 for the following cases: (a) for an allotment or an assignment, the protected contour should be determined using the co-ordinates shown in the Canadian FM Broadcasting Allotment Plan and should be in accordance with Section C-1.2.2; (b) where limitations are indicated in the Plan, limited parameters should be used in the pertinent direction( s) instead of maximum permissible parameters. Terrain factors may be considered where the intervening terrain justifies this use. Any recognized engineering method may be used. However, in case of conflict, the Department will resolve the matter by using the terrain program in its data base. The reverse process shall also be covered in the engineering brief i. e. the interference zone( s) from the related allotment( s) or assignment( s) shall be shown as a hatched area. C-1.5.2 For new or changed assignments, based on a short spaced allotment in the Plan, the proposal should be designed to limit interference. Where the related allotment is: (a) unassigned-protection is normally required to the maximum extent of the 0.5 mV/m contour for its class or in accordance with Section C-1.5.1 above; (b) assigned-protection as in C-1.5.1 above is required. An increase in interference zone may be proposed only if both parties are in agreement (refer to Section C-1.5.4 for procedural details). In such cases, the Department may refer the issue to the CRTC for Public Hearing, or deny the application based on spectrum management consideration. The applicant should send the letter and the copy of the brief early enough so that the affected licensee 7 can reply at the latest 10 days before the start of the Public Hearing. Should the thirty-day response time fall beyond this deadline, the Department will not send technical comments to the CRTC. It is to be noted that, in this case, the applicant is taking the risk of having the application withdrawn and assumes the responsibility for it. C-1.5.3 For proposed short spaced assignments or allotments, predicated on proposed channels which are not in the Plan and, where the related allotment is: (a) unassigned-protection is normally required to the maximum extent of the 0.5 mV/m contour for its class. However, protection in accordance with Section C-1.1.17 may be proposed provided it is accompanied by a study indicating that the objective cannot be met by other less drastic measures such as a directional antenna, limitation, etc.; (b) assigned-protection is normally required to the maximum extent of the 0.5 mV/m contour for its class. However, if an interference zone is proposed, the agreement of the affected licensee shall be obtained (refer to Sections C-1.5.4 and C-1.5.5 for procedural details). C-1.5.4 (a) In all above cases, interference zones that fall over water may be disregarded. (b) Where an allotment or assignment is proposed to be limited, the limitation is calculated by determining the allowable ERP and associated HAAT which provide protection to the related allotment or assignment. Normally, the associated HAAT is calculated by linear interpolation between the HAATs of the standard radials adjacent to the pertinent radial. If a disagreement exists in the calculation of this HAAT due to irregular intervening terrain, the terrain profile shall be as determined by the Department. C-1.5.5 (a) In all cases of short-spacing(s) to an assignment(s), the applicant shall send a copy of the engineering brief with a covering letter to the affected station(s) licensee(s), preferably at the date of filing the application or immediately after the CRTC has issued a Notice of Public Hearing. A copy of this letter and the postal or messenger receipt, as proof of delivery, shall be sent to the Department. The letter shall advise the licensee of the proposed short-spacing and interference zone where applicable, and shall emphasize that the licensee's comments shall be submitted to the Department no later than thirty days after receipt of engineering brief. Where the affected licensee offers an objection, the application may not be accepted by the Department(refer to paragraph (b) below). If no reply is received within the specified period, the Department will assume that the affected licensee agrees with the proposal. (b) The affected licensee shall use the criteria contained herein together with established engineering practices in the analysis the licensee will conduct. The Department will review the licensee's response from a technical point of view and will reserve the right to make an independent decision concerning the disposition of the application. C-1.6 Channels Separated by 800 kHz C-1.6.1 For FM stations separated by 800 kHz, and operating in the same area, the limited selectivity of some nearby receivers can cause a potential interference problem. It is therefore recommended that such stations be co- located or near co-located, in order to equalize the desired to undesired field strength ratios at all receiving locations. C-1.6.2 If an incoming station is located such that its calculated 100 dBu contour intercepts or overlaps the 80 dBu contour of another existing station, an analysis shall be made for those potential interference areas where the field strength difference exceeds 20 dB. The reverse interference process should also be covered in the engineering brief. The applicant should send the letter and the copy of the brief early enough so that the affected licensee 8 can reply at the latest 10 days before the start of the Public Hearing. Should the thirty-day response time fall beyond this deadline, the Department will not send technical comments to the CRTC. It is to be noted that, in this case, the applicant is taking the risk of having the application withdrawn and assumes the responsibility for it. C-1.6.3 Where the analysis results in an area of potential interference, the population within the area shall be determined and a justification for the site selected shall appear in the engineering brief. In addition, the applicant shall send a copy of the engineering brief together with a covering letter to the affected station licensee, preferably at the date of filing the application or immediately after the CRTC hasissued a Notice of Public Hearing . A copy of this letter 8 and the postal or messenger receipt, as proof of the delivery, shall be sent to the Department. The letter shall advise the licensee of the proposed station and the resulting potential for reception interference. It shall also emphasize that any representations the licensee might wish to make to the Department shall be submitted no later than thirty days after receipt the engineering brief. Where the affected licensee offers an objection, the application may be returned by the Department. However, the Department reserves the right to make an independent decision concerning the disposition of the application. If no reply is received within the specified period, the Department will assume that the affected licensee agrees with the proposal. The licensees of affected low power and very low power stations shall also be notified. C-2 CHANGES TO THE TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS When an FM service is being contemplated for a particular area and the Canadian FM Broadcasting Allotment Plan does not contain a suitable unoccupied allotment, changes to the allotment plan may be proposed by an applicant. C-2.1 Types of Changes The following types of changes are envisaged, separately or in combination, concerning the addition or reclassification of an allotment: (a) adding or changing an allotment without affecting any other allotment; (b) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of short spacing an existing allotment or assignment, two cases may occur; the short- spacing and its resulting interference may be accepted without limitations or a channel limitation may be required to avoid interference. Where an assignment is concerned, the licensee's comments on the proposed limitation shall be sought (refer to Section C-2.3.3). Where an allotment is concerned, refer to Section C-1.1.17; (c) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of reclassifying an existing allotment or assignment. Where the reclassification of an assignment is proposed, the licensee's comments on the proposed reclassification shall be sought (refer to Section C-2.3.3); (d) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of deleting an existing allotment; (e) adding or changing an allotment at the expense of changing the frequency of an allotment or an assignment, in the latter case the licensee's agreement shall be obtained (refer to Section C-2.3.3); and (f) moving an allotment to an area and replacing the shifted allotment with a suitable replacement. Note: The lowering of the class of existing allotments should be avoided unless exceptional circumstances warrant it. The applicant should send the letter and the copy of the brief early enough so that the affected licensee 9 can reply at the latest 10 days before the start of the Public Hearing. Should the thirty-day response time fall beyond this deadline, the Department will not send technical comments to the CRTC. It is to be noted that, in this case, the applicant is taking the risk of having the application withdrawn and assumes the responsibility for it. C-2.2 Impact on the Plan It is noted that some of the changes in C-2.1 may have a positive impact on the Plan in one area but a negative impact in another area. If the Department accepts the changes, it would report to the CRTC on the technical aspects of the changes and their impact on the provisions of the Plan provided the proposal is based on a complete application. These changes would be considered conditionally technically acceptable pending a decision by the CRTC. Any changes to the Plan that may be required as the result of such applications would not be made until the Department declares them technically acceptable and the CRTC approves the application. C-2.3 Application Requirements C-2.3.1 When an application for a new FM undertaking requires modifications to the Plan, the, applicant may consult with the Department regarding these modifications prior to the formal filing of an application. Where pertinent, the study shall show that the coverage objective of the proposal cannot be achieved by less drastic measures such as through the use of a limited allotment and/or directional antenna, etc. C-2.3.2 Any application proposing to change the frequency of an assignment will be found to be incomplete unless it is accompanied by proof that the station affected agrees to the change. C-2.3.3 Applicants proposing to limit or reclassify a channel occupied by an assignment shall send a copy of the engineering brief, with a covering letter, to the licensee of the affected station, preferably at the date of filing the application or immediately after the CRTC has issued a Notice of Public Hearing . A copy of this letter and the 9 postal or messenger receipt, as proof of the delivery, shall be sent to the Department. The letter shall advise the licensee of the proposed limitation or reclassification and shall emphasize that any representations the licensee may wish to make to the Department shall be submitted no later than thirty days after receipt of the engineering brief. Where the affected licensee offers an objection, the application may be returned by the Department. However, the Department reserves the right to make an independent decision concerning the disposition of the application. If no reply is received within the specified period, it will be assumed that there is no objection. C-2.3.4 An applicant may accept interference within the station's 0.5 mV/m contour from an existing assignment or from a future assignment on a existing allotment provided that the engineering brief states that the applicant does not intend to serve the affected area. The extent of the interference area shall be calculated in accordance with APPENDIX 6 and shall be shown as a hatched area on the proposed station's coverage map. C-2.4 Incompatibilities In all of the cases described in C-2.1, problems can arise when changes to the Plan proposed by one applicant are not compatible with changes proposed by another applicant. It should be noted that incompatibilities can occur even when the proposed service areas are geographically well separated. The Department encourages applicants to co-operate in the search for an early solution to problems of incompatibility. In this regard, the Department will, without divulging the details of the proposed changes, make any incompatibilities known to each of the applicants involved, urging their resolution prior to consideration of the applications by the CRTC. C-2.5 Allotment Planning C-2.5.1 Applications for modifications to the Canadian FM Broadcasting Allotment Plan may be made with, or independently from an application for an assignment. In either case, documentation in respect to the allotment change( s) shall be submitted. C-2.5.2 An assignment does not convey a right, real or implied, to a station licensee for continued protection of the licensee's class of station if the operating parameters fall into a lower class. In such cases, the assignment may be reduced to a lower class to facilitate additional allotments and assignments. C-2.5.3 The Department may make changes to the Canadian FM Broadcasting Allotment Plan which are independent of any application received. It will also take independent decisions, based on technical considerations, in its role as spectrum manager. C-3 CONTOUR DETERMINATION C-3.1 Introduction All applications for new stations or for changes to an existing antenna or transmitter are required to show the service contours. For determining the service area of a broadcast station, two field strength contours are required. These are the 0.5 mV/m and 3 mV/m contours which indicate the approximate extent of coverage over average terrain in the absence of interference from other FM stations. Under actual conditions, the true coverage may vary greatly from these estimates because the terrain over any specific path is expected to be different from the average terrain on which the propagation curves are based. C-3.2 Prediction of Coverage C-3.2.1 Details of the calculations and pertinent data for determining the field strength contours are to be presented in the engineering brief as follows: (a) the calculation of the ERP; (b) the sources of information (such as maps) for arriving at the HAATs; (c) if in unique circumstances, such as locations in mountainous terrain, a method other than that outlined herein is used for determining the service area contours, a detailed analysis with profile data should be included; (d) a table shall be included as illustrated in the following example: Radial Azimuth ERP HAAT Distance to Distance to No. (deg.) (kW) (metres) 3 mV/m 0.5 mV/m Contour (km) Contour (km) 1 0 20 191 32 64 2 45 20 207 34 64 3 90 20 232 35 66 4 135 20 336 43 81 5 180 20 282 39 72 6 225 20 200 32 64 7 270 20 311 40 76 8 315 20 296 40 74 C-3.2.2 The table should be based on eight radials taken at 45 E intervals from true north to determine the HAATs and the EHAAT. For each radial, a profile graph shall be drawn extending outward from the proposed site for a distance of 16 km, even if the radial extends beyond the international border. The eight graphs should be plotted separately, on rectangular co- ordinate paper with the distance in kilometres as the abscissa and the elevation in metres above mean sea level as the ordinate. The graph should reflect the topography of the profile accurately. C-3.2.3 The average elevation above sea level of the 13 km distance between 3 and 16 kilometres from the antenna site should be determined. This may be obtained by using a planimeter, by obtaining the median elevation (that exceeded for 50 % of the distance) in sectors and averaging those values or by averaging a large number of equally spaced points. The number of points required and their spacing should allow an adequate representation of the terrain. Conflict situations will be resolved by the Department using the "point-to-point" prediction method. C-3.2.4 The HAAT is defined as the height of the antenna centre of radiation above sea level minus the average terrain elevation calculated above. However, when a part of the 3 to 16 km portion of a radial extends over large bodies of water or over the territory of the United States, only that part of the radial extending from the 3 km sector to the outermost portion of land area within Canada covered by the radial shall be employed in the computation of HAAT. C-3.2.5 Additional radials shall be included relative to the principal centre( s) be served where desirable and, particularly in cases of rough terrain. This is done even if the centre under consideration is more than 16 km from the antenna site. However, the additional radials should not be included in the determination of the station's EHAAT. C-3.2.6 The following data is to be indicated for each radial graph: (a) radial number and azimuth, (b) height of antenna above sea level, (c) average elevation of terrain for the particular radial, (d) HAAT for the radial. C-3.2.7 In predicting the distances to the field strength contours, the F( 50,50) curves of APPENDIX 1 should be used. The F( 50,50) curves represent the field strength at 9.1 m above ground which is exceeded for 50 % of the time at 50 % of the locations as measured in decibels above one microvolt per metre. The curves are based on an effective power of one kilowatt radiated from a half-wave dipole in free space, which produces an unattenuated field strength at one kilometre of about 107 dB above one microvolt per metre (221.8 millivolts per metre). To use the curves for other powers, the sliding scale associated with the curves should be used as the ordinate scale. This sliding scale is placed on the curves with the appropriate gradation for power on the horizontal 40 dB line. The right edge of this scale is placed in line with the appropriate antenna height gradations, the curves then become direct reading (in ÁV/m and in dB above 1 ÁV/m) for the selected ERP and HAAT. Where the intersecting point falls between the curves of equidistant points, linear interpolation shall be used. C-3.3 The Location of Service Contours C-3.3.1 The distances to the 0.5 mV/m and 3 mV/m contours shall be predicted by using the ERP in the plane of maximum radiation, the HAATs in the direction of the eight standard radials and the F( 50,50) propagation curves. In the case of directional antennas, the ERP value in the direction of the eight standard radials should be used. LATM ' LAT1 % LAT2 2 LATK ' 111. 108 & 0.566 cos ( 2 LATM ) LONGK ' 111. 391 cos ( LATM ) & 0.095 cos ( 3 LATM ) LAT ' LATK ( LAT1 & LAT2 ) LONG ' LONGK ( LONG1 & LONG2 ) DIST ' LAT 2 % LONG 2 C-4 COMPUTATION OF DISTANCE AND AZIMUTH C-4.1 Where transmitter sites have been established, the actual co-ordinates of the transmitter sites shall be used as reference points. If a transmitter site has not been established, the community's reference co-ordinates (the co-ordinates of the centre of the city) shall be used unless the co- ordinates have been specified in the Allotment Plan. C-4.2 The distance between reference points is considered to be the length of the hypotenuse of a right angle triangle, one side of which is the difference in latitude of the reference points and the other side the difference in longitude of the two reference points, and shall be computed as follows: (a) convert latitude and longitude into degrees and decimal parts of a degree. Determine the middle latitude of the two reference points (average the latitudes of the two points); (b) determine the number of km per degree of latitude difference for the actual middle latitude in (a) above; (c) determine the number of km per degree of longitude difference for the actual middle latitude in (a) above; (d) determine the North-South distance in km; (e) determine the East-West distance in km; (f) determine the distance between the reference points by the square root of the sum of the squares of the distances obtained; d ' arccos [sin ( LAT2 )sin( LAT1 ) % cos ( LAT2 ) cos ( LAT1 ) cos ( LONG1 & LONG2 )] BEAR ' arccos sin ( LAT2) & sin ( LAT1) cos ( d) cos ( LAT1) sin( d) where: LAT1 & LONG1 = co-ordinates of the first location in decimal degrees, LAT2 & LONG2 = co-ordinates of the second location in decimal degrees, LATM = middle latitude between points, LATK = km per degree of latitude difference, LONGK = km per degree of longitude difference, LAT = north-south distance in km, LONG = east-west distance in km, and DIST = distance between two reference points in km. In computing the above, sufficient decimal figures shall be used to determine the distance to the nearest kilometre. The method for computing distances provides adequate accuracy for determining distances less than 350 km. C-4.3 The azimuth or the bearing between true north and the radial connecting one reference point to the other, shall be calculated as follows: (a) convert latitude and longitude into degrees and decimal parts of a degree; (b) determine the arc length in degrees between the two reference locations; (c) calculate the bearing (if the second location is west of the initial location, subtract the result from 360 E ; i. e., 360 -BEAR), where: LAT1, LAT2, LONG1 & LONG2 are as specified in Section C-4.2; d = arc length between locations in decimal degrees; BEAR = angle between true north (0 degrees) and the connecting radial in decimal degrees. In computing the above, sufficient decimal figures shall be used to determine the bearing to the nearest degree. C-5. ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF MAXIMUM FIELD STRENGTH OF FM BROADCASTING STATIONS C-5.1 Introduction Service requirements and constraints related to the siting of FM broadcasting stations may result in high signal strength levels in populated areas. Under these conditions, FM receivers, as well as other radio frequency devices, are susceptible to signal overload and intermodulation (IM) interference. High signal strength levels may also cause equipment malfunctions in non-radio frequency devices. To avoid or to minimize such problems, it is necessary to assess the potential for interference. C-5.2 Purpose The purpose of this sub-section is to: - identify the analysis required from applicants in determining interference potential, - define the responsibilities of broadcasters in response to interference complaints, - detail the procedure to be followed by applicants in notifying local municipal authorities of the station's proposed location (refer to Section C- 5.5.2). The requirements of this Sub-Section apply to all applications for the issue or amendment of broadcasting certificates for FM broadcasting stations using primary frequency assignments. C-5.3 Requirements for Interference Analyses and Population Estimates In addition to the departmental requirements contained in Section B-2 pertaining to the engineering brief, interference analyses as per Sections C-5. 3. 1 and C-5.3.2 are required. In specific cases, the Department may accept a common assessment for co-located stations, multiplexed or otherwise. C-5.3.1 Assessment of Close-in Field Strength Levels and Population Estimates An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing station shall submit an estimate of the population within the 115 and 100 dBu contours. The location of these contours shall be determined using the appropriate F( 50,50) field strength curves and shown on a suitable map. For distances of less than 1.5 km, the free space formula should be utilized (refer to Section C-5.4.2). Every attempt shall be made to keep the population within the 115 and 100 dBu contours to a minimum. The Department reserves the right to request changes to the antenna site, to the antenna height, to the antenna itself, or to the radiated power to reduce the population within these high signal level contours. C-5.3.2 Intermodulation Products It is necessary to identify the frequency of all third order IM products of the type 2f1 - f2 and f1 f2 f3, resulting from the combination of assigned and available frequencies allotted in the FM Allotment Plan to the centre( s) to be served. Only those channels having 0.5 mV/m or greater signal strength over any such centre need to be considered. If any such frequency product falls on or are within 200 kHz of Canadian FM channels allotted or assigned to said centre( s), then interference may exist and the following documentation shall be prepared and submitted to the Department: (a) where the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) contours of existing Canadian stations overlap the 115 dBu or the 100 dBu contours of the applicant's proposed station, and where the reception of such stations may be affected by IM products as calculated above, an estimate of the population within all overlapping zones shall be included; (b) in addition, centres within the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) contour of the applicant's proposed station which may encounter IM interference to its reception shall be identified; (c) an estimate of the population within the 70 dBu (3 mV/m) and the 54 dBu (0.5 mV/m) contours shall be submitted. F ' 137 % 10 log ( ERP) & 20 log( d) The applicant shall also include a rationale for the choice of the proposed station's parameters in light of the analyses above. The Department reserves the right to request further analysis and justification or amendments when, in its opinion, these are warranted. C-5.4 Method for Calculating High Field Strength Contours C-5.4.1 The antenna radiation patterns, vertical and horizontal (if antenna is directional), are normally supplied by the antenna manufacturer. In predicting high field strength contours, the ERP should be based on the appropriate antenna vertical plane radiation pattern for the azimuthal direction concerned. C-5.4.2 For distances less than 1. 5 km from the transmitting site, the field strength should be determined from the following free space formula; where: F: is the field strength in dBu (dB above one microvolt per metre); ERP: is the effective radiated power in Watts at the pertinent depression angle; d:: is the slant distance (in metres) between the centre of radiation of the antenna and the receiving location. C-5.4.3 For distances between 1. 5 and 4 kilometres, the field strength should be determined from the F( 50,50) curves. Use the height of the antenna radiation centre with respect to the location under consideration. C-5.4.4 For distances beyond 4 kilometres, the field strength should be determined from the F( 50,50) curves using the pertinent HAAT. C-5.4.5 Whenever F( 50,50) curves are being used, the antenna height and the distance from the tower should be used to determine the depression angle from Figure 3 of APPENDIX 1. The ERP for that direction shall be determined by the depression angle and the vertical pattern information of the antenna. For the horizontal directional pattern, the power shall also be adjusted according to the azimuth selected. d i ' H tan ( 1 i % A) d i ' 57. 3 H 1 i % A C-5.4.6 Close-in field strength prediction may involve nulls in the vertical radiation pattern which shall be taken into consideration. The distances (d) along the ground where the field strength due to a vertical pattern null is at i minimum, can be calculated by the following relationship: where: A and 1 are the beam tilt angle and the angles corresponding to the different nulls in the vertical pattern i respectively (both in degrees). H = height (in metres) to radiation centre of antenna; d = distances in metres along ground. i For values of 1 + A # 10 E : i This general relationship is plotted for various antenna heights as shown in Figure 3 of APPENDIX 1. C-5.5 Broadcaster's Responsibilities The broadcaster will accept responsibility to: - remedy valid complaints of interference to radio frequency devices within the 115 dBu contour (refer to Section C- 5.6 for list of complaints judged not valid by the Department), and - provide technical advice to complainants, located between the 115 dBu contour and the service contours of the station, concerning appropriate action to resolve interference problems attributed to the station, and - keep the appropriate district office of the Department fully informed of all complaints received and action taken. At a future date, and following the development of radio frequency immunity standards for non-radio frequency devices, the broadcaster will be responsible for remedying valid complaints of interference caused by the station to such devices. Changes to existing stations that do not modify the structure and its attachments nor change the location 10 of the 115 dBu contour need not be notified. C-5.5.1 Broadcaster's Commitment To acknowledge the responsibilities of the broadcaster with respect to the high field strength contours, all applicants shall submit the following commitment to the Department: "In the event a broadcasting certificate is issued as a result of this application, the holder of the broadcasting certificate agrees to take prompt and appropriate action to correct overload and/or blanketing interference and any other type of interference to radio frequency devices inside the 115 dBu contour of the station, bearing all corrective costs involved, unless such complaints are of a type judged not valid by Industry Canada. Where interference occurs in areas between the 115 dBu contour and the service contours of the station, the holder of the broadcasting certificate agrees to provide technical advice to complainants by suggesting appropriate remedial action to resolve interference problems attributed to the station". C-5.5.2 Notifying the Local Municipality An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing station shall submit a notice to the local 10 municipality( ies) (all municipalities with an area enclosed by the 115 dBu contour) stating his or her intention to operate an FM broadcasting station in the area. The purpose of this notice is to provide the municipal authority with an opportunity to consider the implication of the proposed antenna structure and site. The municipal authority may file a written objection to the proposed facilities with the appropriate Industry Canada District Office. The applicant and the municipal authority shall resolve all municipal problems and objections. Failing this, the Department will consider all factors pertaining to the application, as well as the municipal comments, and render a final decision. The notice shall include the following information: (a) a statement to indicate that a broadcasting station is planned for the municipality and that, if approved, the operation of the station would be subject to federal regulations for which a broadcasting licence from the CRTC and a broadcasting certificate from Industry Canada are required; (b) a sketch of the building, the proposed tower( s) and antennas, with sufficient detail and dimensions to give a pictorial representation of the total structure; (c) a map showing the transmitter site and the location of the 115 dBu contour. This shall be accompanied by a statement to say that should interference to radio frequency devices occur inside this contour, the applicant would be responsible for corrective action in remedying the complaints, unless such interference complaints are deemed to be not valid by the Department. A list of complaints normally considered not valid by the Department is given in Section C-5.6, and shall be included with the statement. In addition, the statement shall indicate that the applicant will provide advice by suggesting appropriate remedial action to resolve valid complaints of interference caused by the station when such complaints originate from the area between the 115 dBu contour and the station's service contours; (d) a statement to indicate that, if subsequent building development occurs inside the 115 dBu contour, which could give rise to interference complaints, or if new or existing devices are added or re-located inside the contour, the applicant would not be expected to assume responsibility for corrective action for such new entrants; and (e) a statement to indicate that the performance of some radio frequency, as well as some non-radio frequency devices, may be degraded by high signal strengths from the station because of design limitations such as inadequate or improper shielding of the devices. The notice is to be filed with each municipal authority with sufficient lead time to permit it to consider the impact of the proposal. Insufficient lead time could delay the processing of the application by the Department and may also cause the CRTC to reschedule this item for a later Public Hearing. A copy of this notice is to be filed with the Department's headquarters office. C-5.5.3 Sharing of Responsibility Within the 115 dBu contour of co-located or near co-located FM stations, should a new station experience problems of overloading, blanketing or IM interference or cause such problems to the reception of other broadcasting stations, all stations involved shall assume their appropriate share of the responsibility to remedy such problems. C-5.6 List of Complaints Judged Not Valid by Industry Canada The following list identifies the types of complaints judged not valid by the Department and for which the broadcaster is not responsible for remedial action: (a) where the complaint is attributed to the use of a malfunctioning or mistuned receiver or an improperly installed or defective antenna system; (b) where the complaint involves non-radio frequency devices such as computers, microprocessors, calculators, audio or video tape recorders, record or disc players, electronic organs, telephones, hi-fi amplifiers, garage door openers etc.; (c) where the complaint is attributed to the desired signal being received at a location outside the coverage area of the station; (d) where the complaint is attributed to the desired signal not being favourably received because of adverse local propagation conditions or building penetration losses; (e) where the complaint involves the reception of signals originating from outside of Canada; (f) where the complaint involves the malfunction of radio frequency devices that are located inside the 115 dBu contour, if the devices were introduced within the contour after the station started operating with the new facilities; (g) where the complaint involves a high gain receiving antenna and/or an antenna booster amplifier intended for reception of distant stations which, as a consequence, overloads the receiver or creates intermodulation in the amplifier output; (h) where the complaint is attributed to overload interference in radio receivers that are located outside the 115 dBu contour; (i) any other complaint which, in the judgement of the Department, is considered not valid. C-6. POTENTIAL INTERFERENCE TO TV FROM FM BROADCASTING STATION ASSIGNMENTS These guidelines identify a number of potential interference situations involving FM and television reception, and establish an interim requirement pending the results of further studies. C-6.1 Second Harmonic Interference Second harmonic radiation from FM transmitters may cause objectionable interference to the reception of TV signals on Channels 7-13 in areas where the TV signal level is relatively low compared to the FM signal. Present standards in Canada require that the second harmonics of FM transmitters be attenuated 80 dB or more below the level of unmodulated carrier, depending on the operating power. In areas where the ratio of FM to TV signals is quite large, the relative level of the FM second harmonic may interfere with TV reception. Since there are a number of cases where such second harmonic relationships exist in the present channel allotment plans for FM and TV, care may need to be exercised in selecting sites for new stations in order to avoid high ratios of FM to TV signal levels which might result in objectionable interference. In circumstances where it is difficult to avoid the aforementioned channel relationships, FM proposals predicated on the use of these channels shall include a complete engineering analysis of the potential interference situation. The brief shall include an undertaking from the applicant that complaints of interference will be investigated and appropriate measures will be take to remedy the n situation at the applicant's own expense. Near co-located means within 400 m of the TV ch. 6 transmitter site. C-6.2 Interference to Channel 6 from FM Broadcasting Stations on Channels 201-220 C-6.2.1 To minimize possible interference to TV Channel 6 from FM transmissions on channels 201-220 inclusive, it is required that the FM and TV signal strengths at TV receiver locations not exceed certain levels. To achieve this objective, the siting of FM stations and their power levels, in relation to TV Channel 6, have to be considered. The perceptibility of interference to TV Channel 6 depends on the frequency separation and the levels of both the FM and TV signal strengths. To minimize interference, it is desirable to equalize the ratio of the FM to TV signal strengths at all receiver locations and therefore co-location or near co-location of 11 the FM and TV stations is highly recommended. Alternatively if co-location or near co-location is not possible, an FM transmitter site outside the Grade B contour of the TV station may be considered. C-6.2.2 FM stations on channel numbers 201-220, that are co-located or near co-located with a TV station on channel 6, shall have ERP (horizontally polarized component) ratios that do not exceed the values of Table C-2, provided that both antennas have similar heights. If the height of the FM antenna differs by 30 metres or more from the height of the TV antenna, the power of the FM shall be adjusted to take into account the difference in height of both antennas. Where directional antenna patterns are used, the FM to TV ERP ratios shall not exceed those given in Table C-2 at any azimuth. Channel FM/TV (dB) Channel FM/TV (dB) 201 -9.0 211 -4.0 202 -7.5 212 -3.4 203 -6.2 213 -2.4 204 -5.0 214 -1.3 205 -4.4 215 0.0 206 -4.4 216 +1.5 207 -4.4 217 +3.5 208 -4.4 218 +6.0 209 -4.4 219 +8.8 210 -4.4 220 +11.5 TABLE C-2: Permissible FM to TV Power Ratio for FM channels 201 to 220 inclusive, when co-located or near co-located with TV channel 6. NOTE 1: The TV power is the ERP of the visual power and is referenced to the RMS of sync. peak. The FM power is the ERP and is referenced to the RMS Power. NOTE 2: The FM to TV power ratios are based on a quality of a TV Picture defined as a ITU-R picture impairment Grade of 4.0 and the FM to TV signal ratio at the receiver is taken at a TV receiver input signal of -25 dBm. The ratio applies to 70 % of all receiver locations. The FM to TV power ratios shown are for horizontal polarization of the TV and FM stations. If beam tilt is to be used for either the TV or FM, the maximum power( s) at the beam tilt angle( s) is (are) to be used. If elliptical polarization is used for the FM, the FM power for the vertical polarized component may be up to 6 dB greater than the horizontal component. FM to TV power ratios in excess of the values shown in the above table may be allowed when there is no resident population near the FM transmitting site or when indoor receiving antennas are used. For such cases, the applicant shall demonstrate that the TV channel 6 signal at the receiver input in the viewers' homes is less than -25 dBm. The FM to TV power ratio can be increased by selecting a lower TV receiver input signal level. The protection to TV channel 6 from an FM signal at various frequencies and at various TV receiver input levels of the channel 6 signal is shown in APPENDIX 7. C-6.2.3 The Grade B contour of a TV station on channel 6 is protected up to a radial distance of 89 km. For FM stations located outside the Grade B contour, the permissible horizontally polarized field strength of the proposed FM station, at the protected Grade B contour of the TV station shall not exceed the value shown in the Table C-3, using the F( 50, 10) propagation curves. If elliptical polarization is used for the FM, the field strength level of the vertical polarized component may be up to 6 dB greater than the horizontal component. Channel Field (dBu) Channel Field (dBu) 201 57 211 78 202 60 212 78 203 63 213 79 204 66 214 81 205 70 215 82 206 74 216 84 207 77 217 86 208 77 218 89 209 77 219 92 210 78 220 95 TABLE C-3: Permissible Field Strength Levels of FM Channels 201 to 220 incl. at Grade B contour of TV channel 6 NOTE: The above table is derived on the basis of an FM to TV channel 6 ratio at a TVreceiver input signal level of -65 dBm. This is equivalent to the field strength obtained at the Grade B contour. The value in the table includes a 6 dB directivity discrimination for the antenna together with a quality of TV picture defined as a ITU-R picture impairment Grade of 4.0. Multiplex sub-carrier transmissions on channels 299 and 300 will be restricted until further information is 12 available on emitted spurious radiation above 108 MHz. C-7 TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSIDIARY COMMUNICATION MULTIPLEX OPERATION C-7.1 Preamble The following technical requirements govern the use of multiplex sub-carrier transmissions by frequency modulated broadcasting stations in the 88-108 MHz band for purposes of providing subcarrier services other than stereophonic broadcasting . These requirements set forth the technical standards to be 12 followed by applicants in applying for a Subsidiary Communication Multiplex Operation (SCMO) in order to amend the broadcasting certificate required for broadcasting stations. C-7.2 Definitions C-7.2.1 Multiplex Sub-carrier. A sub-carrier having a frequency within the range 20-99 kHz of the FM baseband and which is modulated with the subsidiary communication information. C-7.3 Multiplex Transmission Standards C-7.3.1 Any form of modulation may be used on any SCMO subcarrier. C-7.3.2 More than one subsidiary communications sub- carrier may be used simultaneously provided that: - during stereophonic or monophonic transmission, multiplexed sub- carriers shall be within the baseband frequency range of 53 to 99 kHz; - during periods when no broadcast programs are transmitted, multiplexed sub- carriers may be within the baseband frequency range of 20 to 99 kHz. C-7.3.3 During stereophonic or monophonic program transmissions, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all multiplex sub- carriers below 76 kHz may not exceed 10 % (7.5 kHz) and modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all multiplex sub-carriers above 76 kHz may not exceed 10 % (7.5 kHz). Modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all multiplex sub-carriers may not exceed 20 % referenced to 75 kHz deviation. When more than one subcarrier is used, the total modulation may be increased by 0.5 % for each 1 % sub-carrier injection modulation, and under no circumstances may the total modulation of the carrier exceed 110 % (82.5 kHz peak deviation). C-7.3.4 During periods when no broadcast programmes are being transmitted, the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all multiplex sub- carriers above 76 kHz may not exceed 10 % (7.5 kHz) and the modulation of the carrier by the arithmetic sum of all sub-carriers may not exceed 30 % referenced to 75 kHz (22.5 kHz peak deviation). C-7.3.5 During monophonic or stereophonic programme transmission, the cross- talk, within the range of 50 Hz to 53 kHz caused by all multiplex sub- carriers, shall be at least 60 dB below the 100 % modulation (75 kHz peak deviation) reference. C-8 USE OF DOLBY NOISE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT C-8.1 The Dolby Broadcast Encoder compresses high frequency audio to be transmitted by an FM broadcasting station in the same manner as the well- known Dolby noise reduction system for magnetic tapes, at the same time reducing the effective degree of pre-emphasis from 75 to 25 microseconds. Since the encoding process tends to compensate for the decreased pre- emphasis, listeners with conventional receivers generally do not notice the increased level of low volume high frequency audio and those who do tend to prefer it. Thus the permitted use of the Dolby encoder is conditional upon the simultaneous functioning of the encoding circuitry and the reduction of the effective degree of pre-emphasis. C-8.2 For receivers equipped with complementary Dolby circuitry, thebroadcast signal has a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, a station equipped with the encoder can, with certain programme material, modulate at a higher average level than would otherwise be possible. This tends to provide a certain improvement in signal-to-noise ratio with conventional receivers also. C-8.3 If Dolby encoding is implemented, the Department should be notified as per Section B-5. C-9 DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS C-9.1 Directional antennas may be used by stations operating on unlimited allotments, but their use shall not prevent future increases up to the maximum parameters. Directional antennas may also be used by stations occupying or proposing the use of limited allotments to render protection to co-channel and adjacent channel stations. C-9.2 The ratio of maximum to minimum fields of a directional antenna system shall not be greater than 20 dB except where signal reflections due to local terrain will present a reception problem or where other circumstances such as large body of water exist. The radiation from a directional antenna shall not vary from the notified radiation pattern by more than 2 dB. Where limitations are involved, the radiation in the direction( s) of protection shall not exceed the limitation. For antenna patterns not meeting this tolerance, the radiation shall be reduced accordingly. The notified radiation pattern shall include the effect of the mounting structure, the margin of accuracy, and shall be certified by the manufacturer or the supplier. C-10 TRANSMITTER LOCATIONS C-10.1 FM station transmitters shall be located to serve the principal centre to which the channel is assigned and to ensure the overall effectiveness of the Allotment Plan. Transmitter sites shall be located so that the separations are not less than those set forth in Section C-1.4 except when specifically agreed to in accordance with Section C-1.5. Form 16-850 is presently under review. The new title will refer to Broadcasting Certificate instead of TC & 13 OC. SECTION D PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR LOW POWER FM (LPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS D- 1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE D- 1.1 Preamble This Section outlines the procedure to be followed in preparing and submitting technical information required in support of applications for low power FM stations using standard FM channels on an unprotected non- interfering basis (such a low power FM assignment is considered to be a secondary station). D-1.2 Requirements D-1.2.1 An application for a broadcasting certificate shall be made on departmental Form 16-850 "Application for a 13 Technical Construction and Operating Certificate for a Low Power FM (Frequency Modulation) Broadcasting Station". The applicant may also submit a separate engineering brief in accordance with Section D-2. An application form for a broadcasting licence can be obtained from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunication Commission (CRTC). The two applications shall be filed simultaneously. D-1.2.2 All necessary forms may be obtained from any departmental regional office (Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, Moncton) or departmental headquarters in Ottawa. D-1.2.3 A complete technical submission shall include the following: (a) five copies of departmental Form 16-850 should be submitted when applying for a new station 13 or a change of technical facilities of an existing station. The Form 16-850 also contains 13 abbreviated an technical submission which should be presentedas the engineering brief if the minimum separation distances of Tables E- 1 and E- 2 are complied with. Otherwise, a complete engineering brief (five copies) should be submitted in accordance with Section D- 2; (b) two copies of departmental Form 16- 653 "Notice of Retention of Broadcast Engineering Consultant" advising the Department of the retention of a broadcast engineering consultant in respect to technical design and brief preparation should be submitted by the applicant, prior to the filing of the application. The Department will, if advised in writing by the applicant, also process engineering briefs prepared by qualified technical staff (BPR- I, Section 1.2); D-1.2.4 Three copies of Department of Transport (DOT) Form 26-0427 entitled "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form" shall be completed. Topographic maps showing the elevation contours and the exact location of the antenna site as set forth in Section 2 of BPR-I shall be attached. All shall be submitted directly to the Regional Office of DOT for clearance. A copy of DOT's letter of aeronautical approval shall be sent to Industry Canada. Form 26-0427 is obtainable from the Regional Office of the Department of Transport or Industry Canada. D-1.3 Notifying the Local Muncipality An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing station shall submit a notice to the local municipality stating his or her intention to operate a low power FM broadcasting station in the area. This notice shall also include a sketch of the building, the proposed tower( s) and antennas, with sufficient detail and dimension to give a pictorial representation of the total structure. The purpose of this notice is to provide the municipal authority with an opportunity to consider the implications of the proposed antenna structure and site. The municipal authority may file a written objection to the proposed facilities with the appropriate District Office of Industry Canada. The applicant and the municipal authority shall resolve all municipal problems and objections. Failing this, the Department will consider all factors pertaining to the application, as well as the municipal comments, and render a final decision. A copy of the notice to the municipality is to be filed with the Department's headquarters office. D-2 ENGINEERING BRIEF SECTIONS D-2.1 Summary Sheet This will show the submission title, type of station proposed, name and address of applicant, name of the technical representative, transmitting channel proposed, location of proposed broadcasting station and submission date. D-2.2 Introduction This will consist of a general statement of the purpose of the brief relative to the application. The programming source( s), method of programming feed and network affiliation shall be indicated. D-2.3 Transmitting Channel A brief interference analysis in support of the transmitting channel selected should be included in the brief, with particular reference to its relation to existing FM assignments and allotted channels under the Canadian FM Broadcasting Allotment Plan. This analysis should demonstrate that no interference will be caused by or to the service of authorized stations using standard parameters or low power stations now being received in the area. Moreover, every effort should be made to avoid affecting the off-air receiving systems of neighbouring broadcasting undertakings. D-2.4 Received Channel (Using off-air pick-up) An analysis shall be provided to demonstrate the suitability of the received signal level. If the station to be received is in operation, the analysis shall include an assessment of the quality and reliability of the received signal by such means as field strength measurements combined, where possible, with a subjective analysis using an FM receiver. Detailed point-to-point propagation and interference analyses using recognized engineering methods should also be supplied. D-2.5 System Description and Design A description of the major components of the system, including a block diagram, shall be provided. D-2.6 Equipment D-2.6.1 Receiving and Transmitting Antennas - Antenna specifications including the type, manufacturer, gain relative to a half-wave dipole and radiation patterns shall be supplied. The orientation of the transmitting antenna shall be indicated. D-2.6.2 Transmitting Equipment - The transmitting unit shall be type- approved. The intent to use a type-approved transmitter( s) shall be made clear, either by specifying the make, model and type-approval number, or by a statement that the transmitter will be type-approved prior to on-air operation. The rated power shall be specified. D-2.6.3 Transmission Lines - Antenna line specifications shall be supplied including manufacturer, type and length. D-2.6.4 Power Supply - This shall include a description of the primary and, where available, standby methods of supplying power to the installation. D-2.7 Service Area Calculations and Contour Map Calculations determining the service area and a contour map, prepared as outlined in Section E-3, shall be submitted. D-2.8 Predicted Quality of Service A statement shall be made concerning the quality and reliability of the proposed service as evaluated per Section E-2. SECTION E TECHNICAL REREQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF LOW POWER FM STATIONS ON UNPROTECTED CHANNELS E-1 TECHNICAL CRITERIA E-1.1 Conditions E-1.1.1 Definitions A low power FM (LPFM) station is a secondary assignment operating on an unprotected channel. E-1.1.2 Power The effective radiated power (ERP) in any direction shall not exceed 50 Watts. The ERP is equal to the transmitter power supplied to the antenna multiplied by the relative gain (dipole) of the antenna in a given direction. E-1.1.3 Antenna Normally the maximum transmitting antenna height is 60 metres when the ERP is 50 Watts. Should the transmitting antenna height exceed 60 metres, the ERP and height, when plotted on Figure 1 of APPENDIX 4, should fall below or to the left of the curve. In this procedure, transmitting antenna height (HAAT) is the height of the radiation centre of the antenna above the arithmetic average of the elevation of the terrain measured in metres from 0 to 5 kilometres along four standard radials at 0, 90, 180 and 270 degrees from true north. E-1.1.4 Coverage and Protection An LPFM station provides service only within its 3 mV/m (70 dBu) contour. Service may also be provided within the 0.5 mV/m (54 dBu) contour (see Section E-1.3.3). Under no circumstances shall the 3 mV/m contour extend beyond a distance of eight kilometres in any direction from the antenna site even if this requires a reduction in the ERP. E-1.1.5 Transmitter The transmitter shall be a model which has been type-approved under Radio Standards Specification (RSS) No. 153. Where an applicant for a low power rebroadcasting station proposes the use of a heterodyne translator, i. e. a device which receives on one frequency and transmits on another without demodulation, and until such time as a specification may be issued for the type-approval of such equipment, a submission shall be made under Radio Standards Procedure (RSP) No. 103 to establish its technical acceptability. E-1.1.6 Special Applications In mountainous terrain locations, where the transmitting antenna height is more than 300 metres above the elevation of the community to be served, it may not be possible to provide an adequate service under the conditions in Section E-1.1.3 above. In such cases, a broadcast consultant should be retained to demonstrate that the existing stations and allotments shall be protected from interference. In addition, the Department will consider proposals with parameters engineered to provide adequate service to the centre to be served with the following limiting conditions: (a) the effective radiated power shall not exceed 50 Watts in any direction; (b) the 3 mV/m contour shall not extend beyond a distance of eight kilometres from the transmitting site. E-1.2 Status with Regard to Interference to and from other Stations E-1.2.1 LPFM stations will be considered as secondary assignments. In other words, except as provided for in Section E-1.4, LPFM stations shall not create interference to primary FM broadcasting stations, whether established before or after them. Conversely, an LPFM station is not entitled to protection from interference by normally functioning primary FM stations. LPFM stations are assigned on a protected basis from each other according to their date of notification. E-1.2.2 Interference to and from existing stations and allotments is not deemed to exist if the distance separation requirements set forth in Section E-1.3.2 are met. E-1.2.3 The Department may require an LPFM station to take remedial action if the calculated protection ratio at the protected contour of an existing primary station is not provided, or if a change in channel allotments results in the prediction of interference to the new allotment from the LPFM station. In the latter case, it is expected that the applicant for a channel in a changed allotment plan will consider, calculate, and notify the interference impact to the LPFM station. Normally it is expected that only a frequency change by the LPFM station would be necessary but cessation of operation by the LPFM station would be required if no other suitable remedial action is practicable. An LPFM station would not be expected to cease operation to protect a vacant allotment. E-1.2.4 Should a new primary station or one which has changed parameters cause interference to an LPFM station but not receive any, the latter may either accept the interference or make application to change its operation to alleviate the interference. Interference should be deemed to exist when the desired to undesired field strength ratios of 10 to 1, 2 to 1, 1 to 10 and 1 to 100 from co-channel, first, second, and third adjacent channels, respectively, are not met. These ratios may be determined from F( 50,50) field strength curves for the desired signal and F( 50,10) field strength curves for the undesired signal, or by any recognized engineering method. E-1.3 Choice of Frequency E-1.3.1 Channels in the band 88 to 108 MHz are assigned on the basis of 200 kHz separations with carrier frequencies every odd 100 kHz. For convenience, these channels are numbered consecutively from 201 to 300. E-1.3.2 A frequency shall be chosen which meets the distance separations from existing stations and allotments as shown in Table E-1: Frequency Class of Station Relationship (difference) A1 A B C1 C LPFM VLPFM Co-Channel 50 65 97 124 144 17 15 1st adjacent 32 47 79 100 111 10 8 (0.2 MHz) 2nd adjacent 21 36 68 89 100 5 5 (0.4 MHz) 3rd adjacent 18 33 65 86 97 4 4 (0.6 MHz) TABLE E-1: Minimum Separations (km) required to provide interference-free (3 mV/m) coverage. Minimum separation distances with respect to Class C allotments or assignments are based on an ERP of 100 kW and an EHAAT of 450 m. E-1.3.3 The separations in Table E-1 are based on LPFMs giving protection to the 0.5 mV/m contour of Class A1, A, B, C1 and C stations, and in return, receiving protection from other LPFMs to at least the 3 mV/m contour. While not mandatory, the following Table E-2 shows the required separations for an LPFM station from an LPFM and other classes of stations to provide interference-free coverage up to the 0. 5 mV/m contour. Applicants are encouraged to select channels which provide the separations given in Table E-2 whenever possible. Frequency Class of Station Relationship (difference) A1 A B C1 C LPFM VLPFM Co-Channel 70 109 179 215 231 42 23 1st adjacent 37 62 109 140 159 24 15 (0.2 MHz) 2nd adjacent 21 36 68 89 100 13 11 (0.4 MHz) 3rd adjacent 19 33 65 86 97 10 9 (0.6 MHz) TABLE E-2: Minimum Separations (km) required to provide interference-free 0.5 mV/m coverage. E-1.3.4 Tables E-1 and E-2 separations are based on an ERP of 50 Watts with an antenna height of 60 metres for LPFM stations and maximum permissible parameters for other stations. Minimum separation distances with respec to Class C allotments and assignments are based on an ERP of 100 kW and an EHAAT of 450 m. E-1.3.5 One systematic method of determining which channels are available is outlined in APPENDIX 5. E-1.3.6 For applications with the special conditions as described in Section E-1.1.6, a frequency shall be chosen which meets the limiting conditions identified in that section. E-1.4 Separations Less than the Minimum If it is impossible to find a frequency which meets all the minimum distance separations to primary FM stations, a submission based on separations, none of which are more than eight kilometres short of the distances in Table E-1, may be considered only when the mutual consent of all stations involved and departmental approval are obtained. In such cases, a broadcast engineering consultant shall conduct a detailed channel search and will determine and plot on a map the theoretical interference zones as well as the interference-free coverage. E-2 QUALITY OF REBROADCAST SIGNAL E-2.1 An applicant for a rebroadcasting LPFM station shall provide assurance that the transmitted signal will be of acceptable technical quality. E-2.2 If the signal is to be picked up "off-air" or by a microwave link, an analysis of the propagation path over which the signal is to be received and an estimate of the level and signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal which will be exceeded 99 % of the time shall be provided. E-2.3 Section E-2.2 above does not apply during night-time if the signal received "off-air" is transmitted by an AM station. In such cases an estimate of the quality obtainable under night-time conditions will be sufficient. E-2.4 If the programme material is to be provided by a microwave link an estimate of the signal-to-noise ratio is required. For microwave programme links, application should be made to the appropriate Regional Office. E-2.5 If more than one rebroadcasting station is involved, the signal-to- noise ratios at the preceding stations in the chain shall be taken into consideration. E-3 COVERAGE PREDICTIONS E-3.1 Estimates shall be made of the predicted coverage and submitted with the application. The F( 50,50) field strength curves in Figures 2 and 3 of APPENDIX 4 should be used to determine the distance to the 0.5 and 3 mV/m contours as follows: (a) in areas of relatively smooth terrain, the distance to each contour should be determined in the direction of the four standard radials and one radial in the direction of the principal centre to be served using the transmitting antenna height in the pertinent direction; (b) in areas of mountainous terrain or in the proximity of other natural obstacles, the distance to each contour should be determined in at least the four standard directions plus one each in the direction of the centres to be served using the transmitting antenna height in the pertinent direction. When a directional antenna is proposed, the ERP in the pertinent direction should be used. When a directional antenna is proposed, the ERP in the pertinent direction should be used. E-3.2 Suitable point-to-point type field strength calculations may be used to replace or supplement the above Paragraph E-3.1( b) if the irregularity of the terrain justifies the use of such techniques. E-3.3 The coverage predictions should be presented in tabular form and on a suitably detailed map with the transmitting site marked and the 0.5 and 3 mV/m contours labelled. The map referred to in D-1.2.4 would be suitable, supplemented by a map of the adjacent area if necessary. When interference zones are predicted, as per E-1.4, they shall be shown on the contour map as hatched areas. Form 16-932 is presently under review. The new title will refer to Broadcasting Certificate instead of TC 14 & OC. SECTION F PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR FM (VLPFM) BROADCASTING STATIONS IN SMALL REMOTE COMMUNITIES Very low power FM stations shall only be established in those communities which are both outside the major urban/suburban areas and which are remote in the sense of lacking access to a complete range of Canadian broadcasting services. These stations shall use FM channels on an unprotected non-interfering basis with an ERP of 10 Watts or less. F-1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE F-1.1 Application Form An application for a broadcasting certificate shall be made on departmental Form 16-932 "Application 14 for a Technical Construction and Operating Certificate for a Very Low Power Television (VLPTV) or a Very Low Power FM (VLPFM) Broadcasting Transmitting Station in Small Remote Communities". Two copies of this form should be submitted. An application form for a broadcasting licence can be obtained from the Canadian Radio- television and Telecommunication Commission (CRTC). The two applications shall be filed simultaneously. F-1.2 Antenna Site and Height Clearance Form Three copies of Department of Transport (DOT) Form 26-0427 entitled "Aeronautical Obstruction Clearance Form" shall be completed. Topographic maps showing the elevation contours and the exact location of the antenna site as set forth in Section 2 of BPR-I shall be attached. All shall be submitted directly to the Regional Office of DOT for clearance. A copy of DOT's letter of aeronautical approval shall be sent to the Department. Form 26-0427 is obtainable from the Regional Offices of the Department of Transport or Industry Canada. F-1.3 Notifying the Local Muncipality An applicant for a new station or for changes to an existing station shall submit a notice to the local municipality stating his or her intention to operate a very low power FM broadcasting station in the area. This notice shall also include a sketch of the building, the proposed tower( s) and antennas, with sufficient detail and dimension to give a pictorial representation of the total structure. The purpose of this notice is to provide the municipal authority with an opportunity to consider the implications of the proposed antenna structure and site. The municipal authority may file a written objection to the proposed facilities with the appropriate Industry Canada District Office. The applicant and the municipal authority shall resolve all municipal problems and objections. Failing this, the Department will consider all factors pertaining to the application, as well as the municipal comments, and render a final decision. A copy of the notice to the municipality is to be filed with the Department's headquarters office. SECTION G TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VERY LOW POWER FM STATIONS (VLPFM) IN SMALL REMOTE COMMUNITIES G-1. TECHNICAL CRITERIA G-1.1 Conditions G-1.1.1 Power The ERP shall not exceed 10 Watts. The ERP is equal to the transmitter power supplied to the antenna multiplied by the relative gain (dipole) of the antenna in a given direction. G-1.1.2 Antenna Parameters The maximum antenna height above ground shall not exceed 30 metres. G-1.1.3 Equipment Recommended minimum technical standards for the transmitter are outlined in Telecommunications Regulation Circular (TRC) No. 54. G-1.1.4 Service Because of the nominal cost and the limited capability of the equipment, the quality of the signal provided may be limited. Service is only provided to the 3 mV/m contour. G-1.2 Selection of Frequency In selecting a channel, care should be taken to minimize the disruption of the existing pattern of off-air reception of distant stations in the community. The channel selected shall comply with the minimum distance separations shown in Table G-1. Frequency Separation between stations (km) Relationship VLP LP A1 A B C1 C Co-channel 8 15 32 51 94 122 142 First Adjacent 5 8 24 38 71 92 103 Second Adjacent 3* 5 20 34 67 88 99 Third Adjacent 2* 4 18 32 65 86 97 TABLE G-1: Minimum distance separations between VLPFM stations and primary and low power stations. Note: Distances marked with an asterisk(*) may be eliminated if stations are co-sited. The frequency of the transmitted signal shall correspond to the carrier frequency specified for allotted channels. G-1.3 Interference G-1.3.1 Interference to and from Other Stations Very Low Power FM (VLPFM) stations are not protected from interference caused by primary FM stations and by low power FM (LPFM) stations. Very low power stations shall not cause interference to any new or existing stations, and such stations are only entitled to protection from other very low power stations established in accordance with this Section. Protection of VLPFM stations applies at the 3 mV/m contour. G-1.3.2 Remedial Measures Should the operation of a very low power station established in accordance with this section cause interference to existing broadcasting stations or to other radio services, remedial measures shall be taken by the licensee even to the extent of closing down the station if another suitable channel cannot be found. These remedial measures also apply to the protection of future broadcasting stations established in accordance with new or existing allotment plans. G-1.4 Service and Coverage Guidelines The signal strength normally required to provide a satisfactory service to the low density population areas is the 3 mV/m contour. As a guideline, for a 10 Watt ERP using an antenna at a height of 30 metres above ground, the distance from the transmitter to the above contour is estimated to be slightly over 2 km (non-directional antenna with a gain of 0 dB). SECTION H PREPARATION OF TECHNICAL SUBMISSIONS SUPPORTING APPLICATIONS FOR FM REBROADCASTING STATIONS H-1 APPLICATION PROCEDURE H-1.1 Preamble This section outlines the procedure to be followed in preparing and submitting technical information required in support of applications for full time rebroadcasting stations. H-1.2 Conditions of Assignment Full time rebroadcasting stations may be assigned in areas within the protected contour of the originating station where the signal of the originating station is deficient (i. e. field strengths less than 0.5 mV/m) due to terrain factors such as shadowing, multipath propagation, etc. Full time rebroadcasting stations may be assigned as Low Power or Very Low Power FM (LPFM or VLPFM) stations or they may be assigned as "on- channel" boosters. As LPFM or VLPFM, these stations are only assigned between the 3 mV/m and the 0.5 mV/m contours of the originating station, in accordance with Sections D and E, on an unprotected, non-interfering basis. As "on-channel" boosters these stations use the same frequency as that of the originating station. Moreover, the 0.5 mV/m contour shall not extend beyond the 0. 5 mV/m contour of the originating station and the ERP shall not exceed 10 % of the ERP of the originating station. H-1.3 Requirements An application for a broadcasting certificate for a full time rebroadcasting station shall be made in accordance with the requirements of Sections C, D and E. For on-channel booster applications, no analysis need be submitted on the minimum separation distances to other FM stations. However, an analysis on the quality of service to be provided is required. Both types of rebroadcasting station applications are subject to an FM/NAV/COM compatibility analysis. APPENDIX 1 Figure 1 APPENDIX 1 Figure 2 APPENDIX 1 Figure 3 DISTANCE VERSUS DEPRESSION ANGLE (For various antenna heights) DEPRESSION ANGLE (in degrees) APPENDIX 2 SUMMARY SHEET APPLICANT: STATION: NEW STATION LOCATION: CHANGE STATION CALL SIGN: ANTENNA CO-ORDINATES: N. LAT. E E ' " W. LONG. E E ' " TRANSMITTER POWER: kW LINE EFFICIENCY: % ANTENNA POWER GAIN: MAXIMUM AT HORIZONTAL AVERAGE AT HORIZONTAL ERP: MAXIMUM kW (Horizontal/Vertical/circular Polarization) AVERAGE kW (Horizontal/Vertical/circular Polarization) AT BEAM TILT kW Maximum AT BEAM TILT kW Average EHAAT: METRES RCAMSL: METRES CHANNEL NUMBER: FREQUENCY: MHz CLASS OF STATION: MODES: MONO ( ), STEREO ( ), UNATTENDED ( ), AUTOMATIC ( ), SCMO ( ). APPENDIX 3 ELEVATION DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL TOWER AND TRANSMITTING ANTENNA APPENDIX 4 Figure 1 PARAMETRES EQUIVALENT TO AN EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER OF 50 WATTS AT A TRANSMITTING ANTENNA HEIGHT OF 60 METRES EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (WATTS) APPENDIX 4 Figure 2 0.5 MILLIVOLT PER METRE CONTOUR CALCULATOR TRANSMITTING ANTENNA HEIGHT (METRES) APPENDIX 4 Figure 3 3 MILLIVOLT PER METRE CONTOUR CALCULATOR TRANSMITTING ANTENNA HEIGHT (METRES) APPENDIX 5 SYSTEMATIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING LPFM CHANNEL AVAILABILITY The following presents a systematic method for making a channel search. (a) List the numbers 201 to 300. Channels 201 to 220 should not be considered if there is reception of TV channel 6 in the proposed coverage area, or if there is a channel 6 allotment within 95 km of the LPFM transmitting site. If there is a limitation on the parameters of a channel 6 allotment, this distance may be somewhat reduced. Departmental advice can be sought in this regard. (b) On a suitable map, draw a circle centered at the proposed antenna site with a radius of 144 km (3 mV/m) if Table E-1 is used, or 231 km if Table E-2 is used. (c) Using the Canadian FM Allotment Plan for Commercial Channels starting at channel 221 and, if applicable, the Canadian FM Allotment Plan for Non-commercial Educational Channels starting at channel 201 and working up, check for centres located within the circle in (b). Measure on the map the distance to these centres and, using either Table E-1 and or Table E-2, eliminate those channels which allotments to that centre would preclude; e. g. a centre 90 km distant has an allotment listed as 250B. From Table E-1 under Class B, the required separation for co-channel operation is 97 km, but for first adjacent channels it is only 79 km. Thus channel 250 is eliminated from the list in (a). If 0.5 mV/m coverage is wanted, from Table E-2, the required separation for first adjacent channels is 109 km. Thus channels 249, 250 and 251 cannot be used in this example. (d) If there are available channels after eliminating those affected by Canadian allotments, check whether the circle in (b) encloses any U.S. territory. Using the list "U.S. FM Allocations Within 190 Miles of the Canada-U.S. Border, Sorted By Channels", check again using either Table E-1 or Table E-2 as desired. If there are still available channels, select one and enter it under Section 2 of the application form as part of the required technical data. (e) If no channels are available using Table E-2, repeat from Step (b) using Table E-1. (f) If no channels are available, based on Table E-1, check whether any channel is eliminated by being less than 8 km short of any required separation, excluding those to other LPFM stations (see Section E-1. 4). A proposal based on such a channel might be considered acceptable under these circumstances. (g) If there are still no channels available, the services of a broadcast engineering consultant should be retained to perform a channel search. APPENDIX 6 PROCEDURE TO DETERMINE INTERFERENCE ZONE On an appropriately scaled map plot the transmitter sites and do the following: 1. Plot the protected service contour for the assignment or allotment to be protected, based on the maximum or other permissible parameters, as shown in Section C-1.2. 2. Plot the interfering contour for the proposed assignment or allotment based on its proposed parameters in accordance with the interfering signal levels as shown in Section C-1.3. 3. Mark the two points where the contours intersect. 4. Repeat steps 1, 2 and 3 except increase the value of each contour while maintaining the same protection ratio until the protected and interfering contours are tangential. 5. Draw a line joining the intersection points obtained above. The area contained within this line and the protected service contour drawn in step 1 defines the interference zone. Example The following example shows the interference zone between an existing Class B station and a proposed Class A station which are short-spaced and on second-adjacent channels. 1. The protected service contour from Section C-1.2 is 54 dBu which extends to 65 km. 2. The interfering contour from Section C-1.3 is 74 dBu. (The extent of this contour will vary depending on the proposed operating facilities). 3. Mark the two points where the contours intersect. 4. Plot the 56 dBu service contour and the 76 dBu interfering contour and mark the two points of intersection. Continue to increase the value of the contours, plot them, and mark the intersection points until the contours are tangent. 5. Draw a line joining the intersection points obtained above. The area contained within this line and the protected service contour drawn in step 1 defines the interference zone. This area is shown cross-hatched in the drawing. APPENDIX 7 PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING FM TO TV CHANNEL 6 PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS Object To define the factors and to present a method for determining the protection requirements for TV channel 6 from FM Broadcasting stations on channels 201 to 220 when co-located with TV channel 6 and when located outside the Grade B contour of TV channel 6. TV Channel 6 Receiver Measurements Laboratory measurements were taken on a number of TV receivers to determine the level at which the interference from FM signals on channels 201-220 was viewed as being just perceptible. The results were analyzed and the curves are shown attached. The data for the curves was obtained from FCC measurements, taken in September 1979, using new TV receivers. The data showed an improvement of approximately 6 dB over earlier data. The curves show the average FM to TV channel protection ratio for new TV receivers for a picture quality of just perceptible interference. Since the protection varies with the level of the TV signal, separate curves are shown for different TV input levels. FM to TV Channel 6 Protection The protection to TV channel 6 from FM stations is related to their field strength ratio by the following formula: where: F is the FM undesired signal and F is the desired TV signal levels both is dBu; u d P is the protection ratio in dB obtained from the receiver measurement; r G is the value in dB to be added (or subtracted) to change the TV grade of picture from the r just perceptible interference value to a specified picture quality; A is the TV receiving antenna discrimination against the FM signals in dB; d L is the adjustment made in dB with respect to the percentage of locations where the field strength level will be above the stated value. Co-located FM and TV Stations For co-located FM and TV stations, the field strength of the TV signal will be very high in the vicinity of the TV antenna and therefore outdoor receiving antennas are not normally used. Measurement tests have indicated that the maximum TV signal into the receiver, using an indoor antenna, does not usually exceed -25 dBm. The reduced antenna size (rabbit ears) and its reduced height above ground, limit the actual level. The receiver level of -25 dBm has been used to derive the FM to TV protection ratios as shown in Table C-2. It is recognized that a TV receiver input level of less than -25 dBm could be used, when justified, by the type of receiving antenna and possible shielding effect of the type of buildings where the receivers are located. Tests by the NTIA (NTIA Report 81-68) have shown that for an indoor antenna, the "antenna system gain" (antenna gain over any losses) can be as low as -29 dB (loss) for an antenna at a height of 2 metres. This would place the receiver input signal at -38 dBm for an incident field of 115 dBu, as determined from the F( 50,50) field strength curves. For co-located FM and TV transmitter sites, the TV receiving antenna provides no discrimination against the FM transmissions for horizontal polarization. For this case, the antenna discrimination factor is zero. The FM power for vertical polarization can be increased 6 dB above the value determined for horizontal polarization. The picture quality for coverage inside the Grade A contour is defined as a picture of acceptable quality for at least 70 % of the receiving locations and 90 % of the time. Using the ITU-R five point impairment scale, this acceptable quality has been equated to a picture impairment Grade of 4.0. Since the laboratory measurements on the TV receivers were performed using an interference criterion of just perceptible or a picture impairment Grade of 4.5, a correction of 3 dB is required to change to a picture impairment Grade of 4.0. Since it is proposed to protect 70 % of the receiver locations, which is the same percentage of receiver locations as used in the definition of the Grade A contour, a 5 dB correction factor is used for "L" to equate the 50 % used in the measurements (median value of the ratio) to 70 % of protected receiver locations. Table C-2 has been derived using the above factors in equation (1). FM Stations Outside the Grade B Contour For FM stations located outside the Grade B contour, the B contour (F = 47 dBu) is protected and the FM to d Channel 6 field strength values shown in Table C-3 have been calculated using the formula in equation (1) with the following considerations: the FM to TV channel 6 protection ratio (P ) is based on measured values for a r TV receiver input of -65 dBm; for the antenna discrimination, a value of 6 dB is used. This value represents the performance of an average outdoor antenna as used at locations near the Grade B contour. This value has been proposed by the IEC Technical Committee No. 12 on radiocommunications for domestic receiving antennas. The picture quality for coverage within the Grade B Contour is defined as a picture of acceptable quality for at least 50 % of the receiving locations and 90 % of the time. The acceptable quality has been equated to "interference is not annoying". Since it is desirable to have an interference which does not degrade the picture, ITU-R picture impairment Grade of 4.0 is used. To change a ITU-R impairment Grade of 4.5, which is the condition under which the TV receivers were measured, to an impairment Grade of 4.0, a value of 3 dB for G is used. r "L" in the equation represents the adjustment made in dB with respect to the percentage of locations in excess of 50 %. By using the F( 50,10) propagation curves, and since the interference value is exceeded for 50 % of the locations and 10 % of the time, the value of "L" is zero. Table C- 3 has been derived using the above factors in the formula of equation (1). Step by Step Procedure For determining the maximum power of the FM station, when co-located with a TV Channel 6, the following are the steps: (1) using Table C-2, which shows the permissible power ratio for FM channels 201 to 220 included, select the FM to TV power ratio for the proposed FM channel; (2) using the ERP of the TV station, determine the power of the FM station by adding the power ratio in step 1 to the ERP of the TV station as converted to dB. If the TV antenna pattern is directional, the permissible FM power shall be calculated for the different azimuths; (3) if the FM antenna height differs by 30 metres or more from the height of the TV antenna, the ERP of the FM antenna shall be adjusted to correspond to its equivalent value. The equivalent value is calculated by the following procedure: using the FM ERP as determined in step 2 and the EHAAT for the TV station, determine the distance to the FM 100 dBu contour using the F( 50,50) field strength curves. Using the same curves, determine the FM ERP that will place the 100 dBu contour at this same distance using the EHAAT of the FM station. For determining the maximum power (ERP) of the FM station, when the station is located outside the Grade B contour of the channel 6 TV station, the following are the steps involved: 1) Using Table C-3, which shows the permissible FM field strength level, select the field strength level of the proposed FM channel; 2) from the field strength level in step 1 above, determine the maximum ERP using the F( 50,10) propagation curves and the EHAAT of the station. The ERP represents the maximum radiation in the direction of the channel 6 Grade B contour. APPENDIX 7 FM/CHANNEL 6 PROTECTION RATIOS (Just Perceptible Interference) FM Channel APPENDIX 8 PROTECTION CRITERIA FM/NAV/COM (Provisional) 1. INTERFERENCE MECHANISMS AND COMPATIBILITY CRITERIA (a) Type A interference 1 For the analysis of type A interference, the following two categories of spurious emissions exist: 1 - spurious emissions resulting from an intermodulation process caused at the transmitter site, e. g. by multiple transmitters feeding the same antenna; - spurious emissions with the exception of those covered by (a). Where the actual frequency of the spurious emission is known, Table I gives the values of protection ratio used for frequency differences up to 200 kHz from aeronautical frequencies (radionavigation and radiocommunication). Type A interference need not be considered for frequency differences greater 1 than 200 kHz. TABLE I Frequency difference Protection ratio between spurious emission (in dB) and NAV/COM signal (in kHz) 0 17 50 10 100 -4 150 -19 200 -38 (b) Type A interference 2 The protection ratio values used are given in TABLE II. TABLE II Frequency difference Protection ratio between NAV signal and (in dB) broadcasting signal (kHz) 150 -41 200 -50 250 -59 300 -68 2( N 1 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 1 ) 0.4 ) % N 2 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 2 ) 0.4 % 120 $ 0 N 1 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 1 ) 0.4 % % N 2 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 2 ) 0.4 % % N 3 & 20log max( 0. 4; 108. 1 & f 3 ) 0.4 % 126 $ 0 A frequency difference less than 150 kHz cannot occur. For frequency differences greater than 300 kHz, this type of interference need not be considered. Note: FM sound broadcasting stations may in some Regions employ compression techniques and/or provide services on subcarrier frequencies up to 99 kHz. Bench tests have shown that combinations of these practices, especially when associated with a carrier deviation larger than 75 kHz, may result in 0 to 10 dB increase in susceptibility to A type interference of an ILS receiver. Also, type A interference need 2 2 not be considered for COM receivers. (c) Type B interference 1 Third-order intermodulation products of the form: 1) f = 2f - f (two-signal case) or intermod 1 2 2) f = f + f - f (three-signal case) intermod 1 2 3 with f > f > f , 1 2 3 generated in the airborne ILS or VOR receiver will cause an unacceptable degradation of receiver performance, if f coincides with the frequency of the wanted signal and if the inequalities given below intermod are fulfilled. Intermodulation of the second order is irrelevant and intermodulation of a higher order than three has not been considered. 1) Two-signal case 2) Three-signal case N , N and N have the following meaning: 1 2 3 N : level (dBm) of the broadcasting signal of frequency f (MHz) at the input of the NAV receiver; 1 1 N : level (dBm) of the broadcasting signal of frequency f (MHz) at the input of the NAV receiver; 2 2 N : level (dBm) of the broadcasting signal of frequency f (MHz) at the input of the NAV receiver. 3 3 max( 0.4; 108.1 - f) means either 0.4 or 108.1 - f, whichever is greater. Frequency offset conditions When the intermod product falls close to the frequency of the wanted signal, a correction is applied to each signal level which is a function of the frequency difference between the NAV signal and the intermodulation product. This correction is given in TABLE III. N (corrected) = N -correction term. 1,2,3 1,2,3 TABLE III Frequency difference Correction term between NAV signal and (in dB) intermodulation product (kHz) 0 0 50 2 100 8 150 16 200 26 For frequency differences beyond 200 kHz, type B interference need not be considered. For COM 1 receivers, the Venn diagram method (see ITU-IR relevant publications) is now used pending a recommendation by Study Group 12. (d) Type B interference 2 TABLE IV contains maximum permitted levels of broadcasting signals at the input to the airborne ILS or VOR receiver. TABLE IV Frequency of broadcasting Level signal (MHz) (in dBm) 107.9 -20 106 -5 102 5 # 100 10 For intermediate values, the maximum permitted level is determined by linear interpolation. For COM receivers, the level of any FM signal should not exceed -10 dBm. 2. SELECTION OF AERONAUTICAL TEST POINTS For a test point height of: - 2450 m ASL for ILS, - 12200 m ASL for VOR, TABLE V gives separation distances between a broadcasting station with given ERP and frequency and the test point of an aeronautical radionavigation station beyond which it is considered unlikely that the service of the aeronautical station could be affected. The more critical requirements are those for A and B : the higher of the 1 1 two separation distances is shown in the Table V. In general, broadcasting stations which are: - more than 500 km from a VOR/COM test point, - more than 255 km from an ILS test point, or - beyond the radio line-of-sight from a VOR or ILS test point, are considered as being unlikely to affect the service of that aeronautical radionavigation station. TABLE V Separation distance (km) between a test point of a radionavigation station and an FM broadcasting station beyond which the aeronautical service is unlikely to be affected. Effective radiated power of Broadcasting station frequency (MHz) broadcasting station # 100 102 104 105 106 107 107.9 (dBW) (kW) distance (km) 55 300 125 210 400 500 500 500 500 50 100 75 120 230 340 500 500 500 45 30 40 65 125 190 310 500 500 40 10 25 40 70 105 180 380 500 35 3 20 20 40 60 95 210 500 30 1 20 20 25 35 55 120 370 25 0.30 20 20 20 20 30 65 200 20 0.10 20 20 20 20 20 40 115 # 15 # 0.03 20 20 20 20 20 20 65 3. COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENTS It has not been possible to identify a single method for the assessment of compatibility which is applicable in all of the situations encountered in practice. A number of administrations have developed particular assessment methods and procedures for application within their own country. In Canada, an interference prediction model, based on the compatibility criteria given in 1. (work of ITU-R's JIWP 8-10/1), is used pending a final resolution of this matter.