Canadian Studies

Early Canadiana Online


Early Canadiana Online (ECO) is a full text online collection of books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century. The collection is particularly strong in literature, women's history, native studies, travel and exploration, and the history of French Canada.

Early Canadiana Online (ECO) is a digital library providing access to 2,008,165 pages of Canada's printed heritage. It features works published from the time of the first European settlers up to the early 20th Century.

ECO is produced by the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions (CIHM), a nonprofit organization for preserving and providing access to early Canadian publications, first on microfiche and now online.

ECO began in 1997 as a pilot project to create an online digital library. Over three years, 550,000 pages of text were taken from the CIHM's microfiche collection and scanned into digital images. This part of the collection remains free and accessible to the general public.

The second phase of ECO began in 2000 and is scheduled to continue to 2004. During this time, 1,250,000 pages of colonial, federal, and provincial government publications will be scanned and published. This portion of the collection is available to all registered ECO members.

Along the way, a few special projects have also been added to the collection. These include 20,000 pages of text detailing the history of Hudson's Bay Company, and 22,500 pages of Jesuit Relations texts, translated into English by Reuben Thwaites. These collections are also accessible to the general public.

Individual collections include Canadian Women's History, Colonial Government Journals, The Early Governors General of Canada, Early Official Publications, English Canadian Literature, History of French Canada, Hudson's Bay, Jesuit Relations, and Native Studies.


Part of the collection is available without a subscription; Trent subscribes to the entire collection.

1500 -
Update Frequency: 

Early Encounters in North America: Peoples, Cultures, and the Environment

Resource Type: 

Early Encounters in North America contains 1,482 authors and over 100,000 pages of  letters, diaries, memoirs and accounts of early encounters.  Particular care has been taken to index the material so that it can be used in new ways.  For example, you can identify all encounters between the French and the Huron between 1650 and 1700.

To begin with we needed to define an “encounter” and its key elements. An encounter took place between peoples, at a particular place, at a particular time. We came up with a definition and built a special database from the original materials. This table would, for the first time, allow users to see a chronological table of the major encounters, with one-click access to the primary materials that describe them.

The encounters database was also built to include fielded data indicating the “where, when, who, and what” of each encounter. The user could then consult the encounter database and jump directly to the relevant materials. It made it possible for users to answer perplexing questions with ease – for example, “How do the encounters between the Spanish and the Indians compare with those of the French and the Indians?”

(from the website)

This is an Alexander Street Press database, unique because they provide full text and primary documents. You can browse or search for people, events, encounters, authors, audio/video, places, and years. Link to the full text or image.


This database includes the images and full text of the documents included.

1600's to present
Update Frequency: 
Stable URL: 

A stable url (or persistent link) is a link that connects a user to a particular item in a database or on the web.

In this database, click on the symbol for "permalink" at the top of the page to see the persistent link for the item.


Resource Type: 

This is a collection of e-books, mostly (but not all) scholarly. E-books are accessed online; they are not physically located in our library, but we purchase the right to access them on the web. 

E-books purchased by a library are different than individual purchases for your e-book reader because they are mounted on a server, available for viewing to a large number of readers. Libraries purchase access for their users. Software is used to provide a platform on which users can use e-books. ebrary is one of the platforms used to provide our e-books. (See other providers.)

With ebrary, you can

  • create an account for yourself,
  • select books to add to your "Bookshelf" for easy retrieval later,
  • make notes and highlight portions of your readings,
  • print or copy selections or pages.

Books are searchable through an advanced search by author, title, subject, full text, call number, key field, and more.

See the ebrary guide. There are other Help features available from the ebrary start page.


Trent purchases many individual e-books available through the ebrary platform; often with a single-user or 3-user limitation. (1,000+ titles)

The following major collections are also available thorugh ebrary, normally with unlimited simultaneous users.

  • Cambridge University Press (2,300+ titles)
  • Canadian Public Documents Collection (30,000+ titles)
  • Canadian Publishers Collection (8,000+ titles) - excludes Canadian University Presses collection 2014-16 (in Scholars Portal Books)
  • Canadian Trade Publishers (6,000+ titles) - not all scholarly; subscription
  • Duke University Press (2,000+ titles)
  • Oxford University Press (3,000+ titles) - excludes Oxford Scholarship Online 2012-15 (in Scholars Portal Books)
  • Springer (15,000+ titles)
  • Taylor & Francis (11,000 titles)


As of 2015, there are over 70,000 books available at this site.


Many of these e-books can be downloaded to an e-book device, mobile device, or computer. Not all books can be downloaded; you'll be informed if the book you selected is not eligible. Generally, books with a single-user license are not downloadable.  See the information sheet on downloading.

These e-books are not in a format compatible with Kindle.


  • You must have an ebrary bookshelf account. It's easy to create one using the "sign in" page - click "Create an account".
  • You must have Adobe Digital Editions (free software) installed on your computer. Use a computer to download, then sync your device to transfer.


  1. Sign in to your Bookshelf account.
  2. Chose a book, and click the "download" button.
  3. Choose the part (or all) of the book you want to download.
  4. When the document is downloaded it will open in Adobe Digital Editions.
  5. Transfer the e-book to your mobile device.


  1. Create an Adobe ID account.
  2. Install "BlueFire Reader" from the App Store.
  3. Login to your ebrary account.
  4. Select a book and click "download".
  5. Now you can read the e-book using BlueFire.

Downloaded books are saved for 7 days, after which they are deleted from your device. For further details, see the ebrary Help page.

Single-User Books

Some books are purchased with a single-user license to reduce the cost.  Each book will identify how many users can simultaneously read the same book.  One of the following messages will be shown:

  • Your institution has unlimited access to this book.
    • Any number of simultaneous users allowed.
  • Your institution has access to one copy of this book.
    • Can only be viewed by one user at a time.
  • Your institution has access to three copies of this book.
    • Up to three simultaneous users are allowed access.

If you view a single-user book, it is not available to any other Trent user.  It is automatically released only when:

  • you open another book,
  • the book remains idle for 15 minutes, or
  • your browser is closed.

(There used to be a “Release this title” button when viewing a single-user book, but no longer, given the automatic release.)

    If you open a single-user book that is in use by someone else, you are initially shown a preview-only copy of the book. 

    • This allows you to view the Table of Content, Index, and the first few pages of each chapter. 
    • You may not realize this is a preview copy, unless you try to move beyond the limitations, when it will indicate you're previewing and provide you with an option to wait for the book.
    • If you ask to be placed in the queue for the book, you have 5 minutes to access it once you're notified that it's available.  If you don't, it's released to the next user in the queue.


    See ebrary's Help with copying and printing.

    Trent's limit for printing from ebrary is 100 pages per session.  However, many publishers have enforced their own limits.  A session is usually determined by your browser; as long as your browser remains open, your session is still active. This is in place to avoid violation of copyright. 

    Be careful that you don't violate copyright when you print.  See our webpage on "Fair Dealing" and "Short Excerpts".


    See the mobile access information for ebrary. Complete ebrary books can be downloaded to your computer, then transferred to an ebook reader, or a mobile device

    Also see the Scholars Portal guide to Mobile Ebooks.

    See more information about e-books see our webpage on Purchasing E-Books for the Library.

    Ebrary software is also used on the Scholars Portal Books site, although it has a different look to it. There is some overlap of coverage on both sites. Scholars Portal Books provides access to e-book collections from:

    • Cambridge University Press
    • Canadian Health Research Collection
    • Canadian Publishers Collection
    • Oxford University Press
    • Springer
    • Open Access (Internet Archive Project).

    See information about features on the Scholars Portal Books information sheet.

    Update Frequency: 
    Irregular, as new titles are purchased by the library.
    Stable URL: 

    A stable url (or persistent link) is a link that connects a user to a particular item in a database or on the web.

    In ebrary, the url of a particular book in the address bar of your browser is a stable url and it can be copied and used later.

    EBSCO Group


    Databases include:

    Academic Search Elite Database description.
    Full text for more than 2,000 journals, including more than 1,500 peer-reviewed titles. Indexing and abstracts for all 3,484 journals in the collection. Almost any subject is covered.

    America: History & Life Database description.
    The history and culture of the United States and Canada, from prehistory to the present. With indexing for 1,700 journals from 1964 to present, this database is the most important bibliographic reference tool for students and scholars of U.S. and Canadian history. Strong English-language journal coverage is balanced by an international perspective on topics and events, including abstracts in English of articles published in more than 40 languages. 

    Bibliography of Native North Americans Database description.
    Citations to literature about native peoples of North America published from the sixteenth century to the present. Native North Americans include Aleuts; Eskimos or Inuit of Greenland, northern Canada, Alaska, and eastern Siberia; and other native peoples of Alaska, Canada, the United States, and Mexico north of the northern boundary of Mesoamerica.All citations are to published materials: books, journal articles, essays, conference papers, and US and Canadian government documents.

    Business Source Complete Database description.
    This is the world's definitive scholarly business database, providing the leading collection of bibliographic and full text content. As part of the comprehensive coverage offered by this database, indexing and abstracts for the most important scholarly business journals back as far as 1886 are included. In addition to the searchable cited references provided for more than 1,200 journals.

    Historical Abstracts Database description.
    Historical Abstracts is an exceptional resource that covers the history of the world (excluding the United States and Canada) from 1450 to the present, including world history, military history, women's history, history of education, and more - essential for libraries supporting upper-division and graduate research. This authoritative database provides indexing of more than 1,700 academic historical journals in over 40 languages back to 1955.  

    Regional Business News 
    Full text coverage of more than 80 regional business publications covering all metropolitan and rural areas within the United States.

    CINAHL is the authoritative resource for nursing and allied health professionals, students, educators and researchers. This database provides indexing for 2,857 journals from the fields of nursing and allied health. The database contains more than 1,000,000 records dating back to 1982.  We currently subscribe to CINAHL from Ovid but we plan to move to EBSCO in the future.  

    A companion database to CINAHL, Pre-CINAHL is intended to provide current awareness of new journal articles, and includes a rotating file of limited bibliographic information (no subject searching), available to searchers only for the time when these articles are being assigned additional indexing.

    Political Science Complete Database description.
    Full text for more than 520 journals, and indexing and abstracts for over 2,900 titles, (including top-ranked scholarly journals), many of which are unique to the product. The database also features over 340 full-text reference books and monographs, and over 36,000 full-text conference papers, including those of the International Political Science Association.

    Public Administration Abstracts Database description.
    Bibliographic records covering essential areas related to public administration, including public administration theory, and other areas of key relevance to the discipline. The index contains more than 93,600 records, which are carefully selected from the most important sources within the discipline.

    Public Affairs Index Database description.
    A bibliographic database covering all aspects of global contemporary public policy issues ranging from public health, the environment, housing, human and civil rights, to international conflict and natural disasters. It draws on a diverse array of scholarly publications, conference papers, government documents and current reference works to provide up-to-date information on the broad range of topics of concern to the world today.


    This database works with to locate full-text availability.

    See mobile access information for EBSCO.

    Varies with database.
    Update Frequency: 

    Eighteenth Century Journals I & II


    Rare printed British journals, periodicals and newspapers of the long eighteenth century not covered in EEBO, ECCO or Early English Newspapers. All items are full text searchable.

    This project brings together rare journals printed between 1693 and 1799 illuminating all aspects of eighteenth-century social, political and literary life. Many are ephemeral, lasting only for a handful of issues, others run for several years. They offer effective coverage of the important issues of the period, and are invaluable to the study of all aspects of the eighteenth century, including crime, sport, advertising, the theatre; fashion; politics, revolution; agriculture; social issues and society life.

    There are polemics, poetry, letters to the press, reviews of drama and novels, contemporary adverts and essays on almost every conceivable topic.

    See the list of titles.

    (From the website)


    Available from Adam Matthew Digital through a CRKN agreement (June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2011).

    Stable URL: 

    A stable url (or persistent link) is a link that connects a user to a particular item in a database or on the web.

    A persistent link in this database is the link to the .pdf document.

    Empire Online

    Resource Type: 

    Empire Online features a wide variety of material including:  Exploration journals and logs; Letter books and correspondence; Periodicals; Diaries; Official Government Papers; Missionary papers; Travel writing; Slave papers; Memoirs; Fiction; Children's Adventure Stories; Traditional folk tales; Exhibition Catalogues and guides; Maps; Marketing Posters; Photographs; and Illustrations, with many in colour.  All of the items featured are covered in their entirety.  All of these have been indexed in detail, enabling students to find relevant materials easily.

    The images are sourced from libraries and archives around the world, including a strong core of document images from the British Library.

    The project is divided into five sections covering varying aspects of the colonial experience.  These are:

    • Section I: Cultural Contact, 1492-1969
      • manuscript sources such as the diaries and eyewitness accounts of European travellers, correspondence and periodical literature
      • evidence from native populations and indigenous tribes in Africa, India, Canada, Australia and the South Pacific
      • examines how attitudes changed over time as well as the manner in which Europeans worked both with and against indigenous groups in the quest for independence and self-government in the twentieth century
    • Section II: Literature and Empire
      • important texts describing the outreach and impact of colonial endeavour
      • writings by both pro- and anti-imperial authors, by agents of empire, by controllers of empire, and by imperial subjects
      • poetry, prose and drama
    • Section III: The Visible Empire
      • provides photographs and illustrations (over 5% of the images in this section are in colour) that relate to the art, architecture, representations of indigenous peoples, landscapes and natural history of colonial territories throughout the world
      • also focuses on the perception of Empire at home and how Britain was perceived by its visiting colonial subjects
    • Section IV: Religion and Empire
      • features material on encounters with local religious beliefs, missionary work, the development of indigenous churches, and the annexation of existing local beliefs and customs
      • documents on different regions in India and Africa, and on work amongst the Native American Indians in Canada; Maoris, Aborigines and other tribes are covered in records on Australasia and the South Pacific
    • Section V: Race, Class, Imperialism and Colonialism, c1607-2007
      • Colonialism created a new world order in which Europeans asserted their right to intervene and impose conditions of modernity on the subject peoples of their empires. Imperialism as the bearer of modernity, or what the Victorians called the civilising mission, constructed new identities of race, class and gender
      • looks at concepts of America and Imperialism from colonial time to Iraq

    (From the website)


    Includes images: maps, photographs, and illustrations.

    Available from Adam Matthew Digital through a CRKN agreement (June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2011).

    Stable URL: 

    A stable url (or persistent link) is a link that connects a user to a particular item in a database or on the web.

    A persistent link in this database is the link to the .pdf document.

    See more information on copyright and linking.



    Érudit is a multi-institutional publishing consortium comprised of the Université de Montréal, the Université Laval and the Université du Québec à Montréal that was founded in 1998. It is a non-profit society that offers an innovative model for the promotion and dissemination of Canadian research. It is also one of the five editorial production nodes of Synergies, a national project whose objective is to digitize Canadian Social Sciences and Humanities research.

    The consortium Érudit scholarly journals collection includes 59 subscription journals, all of which are licensed by CRKN. The journals are mainly published in French; however there are a few bilingual and English titles.

    In addition, Érudit publishes and distributes the following 9 open access journals:

    • Cahiers québécois de démographie
    • Cuizine
    • Drogues, santé et société
    • Enfances, Familles, Générations
    • Environnement urbain / Urban Environment
    • McGill Journal of Education / Revue des sciences de l’éducation de McGill
    • Psychiatrie et violence
    • Revue québécoise de linguistique
    • Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net

    Available through a CRKN agreement for three years from signing of agreement. Renewed Sep 2011.

    Varies by journal.
    Update Frequency: 

    GALE - All Databases

    Resource Type: 

    Gale is a publishing company, from which we purchase several online databases. These databases are available on the Gale search engine.

    • Some are "cross-searchable" - you can search them all at once. (Use the link above to see all of these.) 
    • Others (at the bottom of the list) must be searched individually.

    Cross-searchable databases:

     Database Description CPI.Q 1980-

    • Use this database to find articles from a comprehensive list of Canadian and international journals, magazines, selected sections of the Globe and Mail, Canadian biographies, and other reference content from Thomson Gale, all with a Canadian focus.


       Database Description Academic OneFile  1980-

      • A source for peer-reviewed, full-text articles from journals and reference sources.
      • Coverage of the physical sciences, technology, medicine, social sciences, the arts, theology, literature and other subjects.
      • Millions of articles available in both PDF and HTML full-text.
      • Includes full-text coverage of the New York Times back to 1995.


         Database Description Gale Virtual Reference Library

        • A database of encyclopedias and specialized reference sources for multidisciplinary research.



          • A selection of e-books from Gale Publishing.


             Database Description Grzimek's Animal Life

            • Provides coverage on more than 4,000 species, and includes more than 11,000 images, videos, illustrations, and maps

            Databases that must be searched individually: 

            Database Description  Literature Resource Center

            • Up-to-date biographical information, overviews, full-text literary criticism and reviews on more than 130,000 writers in all disciplines, from all time periods and from around the world.
            •  Includes MLA Bibliography.

            Database Description Eighteenth Century Collections Online

            • Digital images of every page of 150,000 books published during the 18th Century.
            • Full-text searching of approximately 26 million pages.

            Database Description The Times Digital Archive 1785 -1985

            • Complete digital edition of The Times (London),
            • Keyword searching and hit-term highlighting to retrieve full facsimile images of either a specific article or a complete page.
            • The entire newspaper is captured, with all articles, advertisements and illustrations/photos divided into categories to facilitate searching.

            Database Description 17th and 18th Century Burney Collection

            • Newspapers and news pamphlets gathered by the Reverend Charles Burney (1757 - 1817).
            • 700 or so bound volumes of newspapers and news pamphlets published mostly in London, also some English provincial, Irish and Scottish papers, and a few examples from the American colonies, Europe and India.

            Some of these databases were one-time purchases with Knowledge Ontario (not funded since 2012).

            Varies by database.
            Update Frequency: 
            Varies by database.

            Gale Virtual Reference Library

            Resource Type: 

            This is an e-book platform, with many reference books available. The books can be searched as a group, or an individual title can be opened, viewed, or searched.

            The following Reference titles are included:

            • Business Leader Profiles for Students , 2v,  1999
            • Cities of the World , 6th ed.,  4v,  2002
            • The College Blue Book , 33rd ed.,  6v,  2006
            • Company Profiles for Students , 3v,  1999
            • Computer Sciences , 4v,  2002
            • Countries and Their Cultures , 4v,  2001
            • Encyclopedia of Business and Finance , 2nd ed.,  2v,  2006
            • Encyclopedia of Communication and Information , 3v,  2002
            • Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice , 2nd ed.,  4v,  2002
            • Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior , 2nd ed.,  4v,  2001
            • Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered History in America , 3v,  2004
            • Encyclopedia of Management , 5th ed.,  2006
            • Encyclopedia of Products & Industries - Manufacturing , 2v,  2008
            • Encyclopedia of Public Health , 4v,  2002
            • Encyclopedia of Sociology , 2nd ed.,  5v,  2001
            • Encyclopedia of World Biography , 2nd ed.,  23v,  2004
            • Encyclopedia of World Biography , Vol. 24,  2nd ed.,  2005
            • Encyclopedia of World Biography , Vol. 25,  2nd ed.,  2005
            • Encyclopedia of World Biography , Vol. 26,  2nd ed.,  2006
            • Encyclopedia of World Biography , Vol. 27,  2nd ed.,  2007
            • Enfermedades y Trastornos de la Salud , 3v,  2004
            • Environmental Encyclopedia , 3rd ed.,  2v,  2003
            • Gale E-Commerce Sourcebook , 2v,  2003
            • Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce , 2v,  2002
            • The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology , 2nd ed.,  2001
            • The Gale Encyclopedia of Science , 3rd ed.,  6v,  2004
            • Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia , 3rd ed.,  2003
            • International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis , 3v,  2005
            • Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of Physical Geography , 5v,  2003
            • Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cities , 4v,  2000
            • Lucent Library of Science and Technology: Virtual Reality , 2004
            • Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z , 2v,  2004
            • Pollution A to Z , 2v,  2004
            • Psychologists and Their Theories for Students , 2v,  2005
            • Scholarships, Fellowships and Loans , 22nd ed.,  2006
            • Science and Its Times , 8v,  2001
            • Science of Everyday Things , 4v,  2002
            • UXL Encyclopedia of Science , 2nd ed.,  10v,  2002
            • Water: Science and Issues , 4v,  2003
            • World of Earth Science , 2v,  2003
            • World Press Encyclopedia , 2nd ed.,  2v,  2003

            This product comes from Thomson Gale publishers and is available on the Gale interface with other Gale databases. It is part of the Knowledge Ontario package.

            Stable URL: 

            A stable url (or persistent link) is a link that connects a user to a particular item in a database or on the web.

            To link to a particular book or article, click on "Bookmark" and copy the URL provided.

            Globe and Mail (1844-2011)


            The Globe and Mail (1844-2009) is Canada's National Newspaper, daily offering over a million readers from coast to coast unparalleled national, international and business reporting, analysis and commentary.

            It’s the deepest and most extensive online historic newspaper archive in Canada and includes every news story, photograph, map, advertisement, classified ad, political cartoon, birth and death notice, and more. The breadth and depth of content make it a vital and convenient research tool for educators, librarians and all researchers. (from the website)

            This resource offers the full-page archive of the Globe and Mail newspaper dating back to the pre-Confederation era. This image-rich database brings the entire archive of Canada's National Newspaper to your desktop in seconds.


            Each page is presented in .pdf format, with the search term highlighted.

            For access to current or recent Globe & Mail content, see Newspapers at Trent Library.



            Creating the Library of the Future - Details about our exciting transformation