Native Studies in Canada
More Advanced Level
The language texts are being revised so as to reflect changes to the new orthography which is known as the double vowel writing system. There are three textbooks being developed which are entitled: Eshkentam-Nishnaabemang Mzinagan (Introduction of Nishnaabemwin), Eko-niizhing Nishnaabemang Mzinagan (Intermediate Level) and Oshme geyaabe Wii-Nishnaabemang Mzinagan (More Advanced Level). These texts promote language learning through a progressive development of oral, reading, writing and listening skills. Although aimed at adult learners, they can also be used by teachers who wish to extract lessons from the text in order to teach literacy language programs or for new orthography learners. The expected date of completion of the first textbook is the summer of 2001.
1. Bemaadziimgakin Nanda Kidwinan: Animate Intransitive Verbs (VAI)
2. Bemaadziimgasnog Nanda Kidwinan: Inanimate Intransitive Verbs (VII)
3. Bemaadziimgakin Nanda Kidwinan: Transitive Animate Verbs (VTA)
4. Bemaadziimgasnogin Nanda Kidwinan: Transitive Inanimate Verbs (VTI)
5. Verb Type Comparison Table:VAI, VII, VTA, & VTI
Bemaadziimgakin Nanda Kidwinan
Animate Intransitive Verbs (VAI)
Animate intransitive verbs (vai) are verbs which have a subject
but no object. The subjects of animate intransitive verbs
are always animate.
Inanimate Intransitive Verbs (VII)
Inanimate intranitive verbs (vii) are verbs which have a subject
but no object.1The
subjects of inanimate intransitive verbs are always inanimate.
Transitive Animate Verbs (VTA)
With each of the following transitive animate verbs, it is important
to remember that two third persons are involved, one of which (the proximate)
is performing an action on the other (the obviative). Each
verb has the underlying meaning "s.o. (proximate) does something to
Transitive Inanimate Verbs (VTI)
Like transitive animate verbs, transitive inanimate verbs (vti)
take both an object and a subject. While the subjects
of transitive inanimate verbs are animate, the objects are
always inanimate in gender. Because there are never two
animate third persons (as both subject and object), proximate/obviative
distinctions are unnecessary.
The following table demonstrates the difference in form and function
of the four major verb types.1 Intransitive
verbs are located on one side of the table in order to contrast with their
transitive counterparts on the opposite side. A number of differences
in structure and function may be discerned from the table, and examples
of the use of each verb type are also included further in the text.
1 This Table is adapted from Lena White's Ojibwe Structure Reference Book, 23.