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Acta Victoriana [journal]
Founded in 1877 as a monthly publication of Victoria University, Toronto, Acta Victoriana is the longest running university student publication in Canada. It was originally written from a Methodist perspective, including scientific, literary, and gossip pieces. Northrop Frye became Editor in Chief in 1932, and under his editorial leadership the quality of the publication increased. By the 1950s its main focus was on fiction, poetry, art, and music. Although the quality of Acta Victoriana declined somewhat in the 1970s, it recovered and continues to be published today.

Alpine Club of Canada
After several years of trying to garner interest in creating an alpine club in Canada, Arthur Wheeler found support from journalist Elizabeth Parker and the Manitoba Free Press (now the Winnipeg Free Press), as well as the Canadian Pacific Railway, and the foundational meeting of the Alpine Club of Canada took place in Winnipeg in March 1906. At this meeting, the Club established its goals of educating Canadians about mountain travel safety and instilling a sense of national pride in Canada's mountain heritage. The Alpine Club of Canada has since grown to include approximately 10,000 members, and it now runs the largest public backcountry hut system in North America and publishes the Canadian Alpine Journal, the oldest alpine publication in Canada.

Arts and Letters Club
Founded in 1908 by Augustus Bridle and a group of writers, musicians, architects, academics, and supporters of the arts, the Arts and Letter Club of Toronto was and continues to be 'a rendezvous where people of diverse interests might meet for mutual fellowship and artistic creativity.' Members have included Robertson Davies, Vincent Massey, Marshall McLuhan, the painters of the Group of Seven, and many influential Canadian artists and supporters of the arts. The Club has been located on Toronto's Elm Street since 1920.

Association of Canadian Bookmen
Initiated in 1935 by the Canadian Authors Association, the Association of Canadian Bookmen was an organization of authors, publishers, critics, booksellers, and anyone interested in the reading habits of the Canadian public. It was active until 1939, and sponsored National Book Fairs in 1936 and 1937.

Association of Canadian Clubs
The first Canadian Club was founded in Hamilton in 1893 by Charles R. McCullough, and its stated goals were 'the encouragement of the study of the history, literature, and resources of Canada, the recognition of native talent, and the fostering of a patriotic Canadian sentiment.' Over the next few years, several other clubs were formed, and in 1909 a national organization was created which was incorporated into the Association of Canadian Clubs by an Act of Parliament in 1939. Canadian Clubs exist in many cities across the country today, holding regular meetings and featuring speakers on many topics.

Atlantic Advocate [magazine]
In circulation from 1956 until 1992, the Atlantic Advocate was a general-interest monthly magazine published through the University Press of New Brunswick in Frederiction. Its original aim, as declared in the Editor's Note to the introductory issue, was to 'fight the battles of the Atlantic provinces which will win for them a fair place in the life of Canada,' and it did so through opinion pieces, articles of local interest, news items, cartoons, photographs, letters to the Editor, fiction, and reviews. In 1957 it absorbed the Atlantic Guardian.

Atlantic Guardian: a Magazine of Newfoundland [magazine]
Established in 1945, the Atlantic Guardian was a small monthly magazine published by three Newfoundlanders in Montreal. It merged with the Atlantic Advocate in 1957.

Atlantic Monthly [The Atlantic] [magazine]
First published in 1857, the Atlantic Monthly described itself as a 'journal of literature, politics, science, and the arts,' focusing on encouraging American writers. In its introductory issue, it printed a Declaration of Purpose: 'In politics, The Atlantic Monthly will be the organ of no party or clique, but will honestly endeavor to be the exponent of what its conductors believe to be the American ideal. It will deal frankly with persons and with parties, endeavoring always to keep in view that moral element which transcends all persons and parties, and which alone makes the basis of a true and lasting prosperity. It will not rank itself with any sect of antis: but with that body of men which is in favor of Freedom, National Progress, and Honor, whether public or private.' The Atlantic Monthly continues to be widely read today.

Atlantic Monthly Prize for Fiction
Mazo de la Roche won the $10,000 Atlantic Monthly Prize for fiction in 1927 for Jalna.


Baltimore Symphony Orchestra
Founded in 1916 as a branch of the municipal government, the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra was reorganized as a private institution in 1942. It continues to hold year-round performances at the Joseph Meyerhoff Symphony Hall in Baltimore and at other locations in Maryland.

Basilian Order [Congregation of St. Basil (CSB)]
An international Catholic community of priests dedicated to Christian education. Established as a religious congregation in France in 1822, the Basilian Fathers came to Canada in the middle of the nineteenth century, opening St. Michael's College in Toronto in 1852 and Assumption College in Windsor, Ontario in 1857. The Order also established several other university campuses and schools in Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Columbia.

Bolton Camp
The Bolton Camp opened in 1922, and provided a summer camp experience to mothers and children from low-income families until it closed in 1999. It was located on a large property northwest of Toronto, and run by the Family Service Association of Toronto with funding from several sources including the Fresh Air Fund, the United Way, provincial grants, and private donations.

Brentano's Booksellers (New York)
New York bookstores. Brentano's was founded in 1853 by August Brentano, a publisher specializing in French literature. In 1985 Brentano's was acquired by Kmart's Waldenbooks, merging into Borders in 1994. It was closed in 2011.

British Broadcasting Corporation [BBC]
Founded in 1922, the London-based BBC is the largest broadcaster in the world, providing public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom, and since 1932 broadcasts and re-transmissions throughout the world through its BBC World Service (originally the BBC Empire Service).

British Museum
Founded in 1753 when Sir Hans Sloane's private collection was bequesthed to King George II and the nation, the British Museum opened to the public in 1759 as the first national public museum in the world. Admission to all 'studious and curious persons' has been free since its opening.

British Whig [newspaper]
See the Kingston Whig-Standard.


Camp Borden
Opened in 1916, Camp Borden (now known as Canadian Forces Base Borden) is a military training camp eighty kilometres northwest of Toronto.

Canada Council for the Arts
Created in 1957 by an Act of Parliament, the Canada Council for the Arts seeks 'to foster and promote the study, enjoyment and production of works in the arts, and operate 'at arm's length' or independently of the government.' Today it is Canada's leading supporter of the arts, providing grants, endowments, and prizes to artists and scholars, as well as participating in research, communications, and arts promotion.

Canadian Association for Adult Education [CAAE]
Founded in 1935 with E.A. Corbett as its first executive director, the Canadian Association for Adult Education was an influential organization in the promotion of adult education and the formation of public policies until its decline in the late 1980s.

Canadian Author [journal]
The official publication of the Canadian Authors Association. It merged with the Canadian Bookman and the first issue of The Canadian Author and Bookman appeared in 1940.

Canadian Author and Bookman
This iteration of the official publication of the Canadian Authors Association was formed from the amalgamation of Canadian Author with the Canadian Bookman, and its first issue was published in April 1940. In 1992 it became Canadian Author; publication was suspended in 1998.

Canadian Authors Association [CAA]
Founded in 1921 in Montreal to protect writers from proposed changes to copyright law, the CAA was Canada's first literary foundation. It established Canadian Book Week (1921-57), promoted the formation of the Association of Canadian Bookmen (1935-39), established Canadian Poetry Magazine, initiated the Governor General's Awards, and instituted several other literary awards. Its publications include the Canadian Author and Bookman (later known as Canadian Author) which folded in 1998, The Canadian Writer's Guide, and National Newsline. Its objectives are: 'to work for the encouragement and protection of writers; to speak for writers before government and other inquiries; to sponsor awards and otherwise encourage work of literary and artistic merit; and to publish National Newsline, The Canadian Writer's Guide and other publications designed to improve the professionalism of Canadian writers.' Since its foundation, approximately 25,000 writers have been members, including Stephen Leacock, E.J. Pratt, Mazo de la Roche, Bliss Carman, and Sir Charles G.D. Roberts.

Canadian Authors' Foundation [Canadian Writers' Foundation]
Established in 1931 mainly through the efforts of Pelham Edgar, the purpose of the Canadian Authors' Foundation (known as the Canadian Writers' Foundation since 1946) is to provide financial assistance to older authors in straightened circumstances. It is a registered charity in Canada.

Canadian Bookman [journal]
The official publication of the now defunct Association of Canadian Bookmen, an organization mainly of booksellers and publishers, it merged with Canadian Author in 1940 to form the Canadian Author and Bookman.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation [CBC]
Established as a crown corporation in 1936, the CBC is Canada's national radio, television, and news broadcaster. The Report of the Aird Commission, produced in 1929, led to the passing of the first Broadcasting Act in 1932 which created the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, the predecessor of the CBC. Its goal was to protect the Canadian market from the flood of American broadcasting through the establishment and promotion of local and national broadcast services. It continues to provide between 80% and 100% Canadian content on both its television and radio broadcasts.

Canadian Civil Service Commission
Established in 1908 under the Civil Service Amendment Act, the Canadian Civil Service Commission introduced the principle of merit as established by competition in the staffing of public service positions. In 1967 the name was changed to the Public Service Commission, but its objectives are still 'to recruit and promote on the basis of merit; to ensure fairness, equity and transparency in staffing; to provide impartial recourse and review; and to deliver responsive and effective training and development.'

Canadian Comment [journal]
The journal Canadian Comment was published (1932-38) in Toronto and edited by Ray Perigoe. Pratt was a regular columnist from July 1933 to December 1934.

Canadian Forum [journal]
An offshoot of the University College undergraduate magazine The Rebel, Canadian Forum was founded in 1920 by a group of University of Toronto faculty members. Its aim, as stated in the first issue, was 'to secure a freer and more informed discussion of public questions and, behind the strife of parties, to trace and value those developments of art and letters which are distinctively Canadian.' Several now well-known writers, artists, and poets, including Pratt, were published in Canadian Forum. Publication was suspended in 2000.

Canadian Jewish Chronicle [newspaper]
Founded in 1914 by the Wolofsky family, Polish immigrants living in Montreal, the Canadian Jewish Chronicle was published bi-weekly, providing news in English to the Jewish community. From 1938 to 1955, A.M. Klein was its editor. In 1966 it merged with the Canadian Jewish Review to become the Chronicle Review, which ceased publication in 1976.

Canadian Literature Club
Founded in the mid-1920s by Donald G. French, chief literary editor at McClelland and Stewart, its aim was to 'foster in the public an awareness of Canadian Literature.' It never spread beyond Toronto, but survived until the 1960s.

Canadian Literature [journal]
On the invitation of Roy Daniells, then Head of the University of British Columbia's Department of English, English Professor Stanley E. Read, and university librarians Inglis Bell and Neal Harlow, George Woodcock founded and became the first editor of Canadian Literature in 1959. The UBC quarterly magazine is committed to the critical discussion of Canadian literature, and in 1988 it became the only journal to win the Gabrielle Roy Prize for best English book-length studies in Canadian and Quebec literary criticism.

Canadian Magazine [journal]
The Canadian Magazine (1893-1939) was a Toronto-based monthly journal of mainly popular appeal, publishing mainly current comment, reviews, verse, prose fiction, and items of general interest. Its editor for many years was Newton MacTavish. Pratt published several poems in the magazine in the early 1930s.

Canadian Mercury [journal]
Founded in 1928 by Leo Kennedy and F.R. Scott, who were members of the McGill group of poets which also included A.M. Klein and A.J.M. Smith, the Canadian Mercury attacked the traditionalist views of the Canadian Authors Association and aimed to replace the romanticism of much Canadian verse with modernist poetics. The Canadian Mercury folded in 1929.

Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene [CNCMH]
The Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene, now known as the Canadian Mental Health Association, was established in 1918 by Dr. Clarence M. Hincks and Clifford W. Beers. Its mandate was to treat returned soldiers suffering from mental disabilities; to examine potential immigrants to Canada; to improve facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of mental disease; to ensure adequate care of the mentally ill; and to develop programs of prevention. Its first Board of Directors included Lord Shaughnessy, President of the CPR, Montreal philanthropist Richard B. Angus, Dr. C.F. Martin, Professor of Medicine at McGill University, Sir Vincent Meredith, President of the Bank of Montreal, and F.W. Molson, President of Molson's Brewery. The CMHA continues to provide support and services for people experiencing mental illness, as well as conducting advocacy, education, and research through a network of more than 10,000 volunteers and staff.

Canadian National Railway [CNR]
The Canadian National Railway was incorporated in 1919, formed through the amalgamation of five financially troubled railways. Currently primarily a freight train service, it also operated passenger trains until 1978, when those services were taken over by Via Rail. CN was a crown corporation until 1995, and is still the largest railway in Canada in terms of revenue and track length.

Canadian National Telegraph Company
In 1915, the telegraph subsidiary of Canadian Northern Railway took over the Great North Western Telegraph Company, which was in financial difficulty. Canadian National Telegraph then became part of the nationally owned Canadian National Railway Company in 1919.

Canadian Pacific Railway [CP Rail]
Founded in 1881 to unite Canada and Canadians from coast to coast, the Canadian Pacific Railway was completed in 1885. Primarily a freight train service, CP Rail's passenger services were eliminated in 1986 after being taken over by Via Rail in 1978. Over the decades Canadian Pacific expanded to include several subsidiary companies, including PanCanadian Energy, Fording Coal, CP (later Fairmont) Hotels, and CP Ships.

Canadian Pacific Telegraphs
CP Telegraphs began service between Lake Superior and the Rocky Mountains in 1885, and expanded to include Ontario and Atlantic Canada.

Canadian Packers
Established in 1927 from the merger of Gunns Ltd., the Harris Abattoir Company, the Canadian Packing Company, and the William Davies Company, Canadian Packers was the largest food processing company in Canada until the 1980s, when it began to suffer financially. After a merger with Maple Leaf Mills, the company was renamed Maple Leaf Foods in 1991.

Canadian Poetry Magazine [CPM] [journal]
Canadian Poetry Magazine was founded in 1935 by the Canadian Authors Association with E.J. Pratt as its first editor until 1943. In 1968 CPM merged with the Canadian Author and Bookman.

Canadian Poetry Night
An annual recital of Canadian Poetry sponsored by the Canadian Authors Association.

The Canadian Press
Beginning in 1910, The Canadian Press Ltd. redistributed news from The Associated Press to Canadian newspapers, but by 1917 publishers wanted news from Canadian troops in World War I, and the Canadian Press was established in order to generate Canadian news copy. The Canadian Press was a private, not-for-profit cooperative until 2010, when three major media companies invested in and took over operations of the Canadian Press, which then became Canadian Press Enterprises, Inc.

Canadian Radio League
Founded in 1930 by Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt, the Canadian Radio League was a public pressure group which lobbied for the establishment of a national public broadcasting network which would promote, present, and protect a Canadian perspective and Canadian broadcast content in the face of an increasing tide of American media. The League's campaign resulted in the establishment of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission, the precursor of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Canadian-Soviet Friendship Society
See the National Council for Canadian-Soviet Friendship.

Carnegie Corporation
Founded in 1911 by Andrew Carnegie with an endowment of $125 million, the Carnegie Corporation was the largest single philanthropic trust established up to that time. Its goal is 'to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding' through grants that support libraries, research and educational centres, public interest broadcasting and publication, conferences, and other venues.

CBC Symphony Orchestra
Founded in Toronto in 1952 under the musical direction of Geoffrey Waddington, the CBC Symphony Orchestra was primarily a radio and television broadcast orchestra, although it did present some concerts at festivals and performance halls. It was disbanded in 1964.

Chatelaine [magazine]
First published in 1928 by Maclean Publishing, Chatelaine is a Canadian monthly magazine of women's interests, including current affairs, fashion, beauty, food, and health. Chatelaine and its French-language version, Châtelaine, are now published by Rogers Media, Inc., with a circulation of over half a million.

Christian Guardian [magazine]
Founded in 1829 by Egerton Ryerson, The Christian Guardian was a weekly publication of the Methodist Church of Canada. With the founding of the United Church of Canada in 1925, The Christian Guardian merged with Presbyterian and Congregationalist publications to form The New Outlook, which then became The United Church Observer in 1939.

Church of England
The Church in England remained under papal authority until 1534, when a dispute over the annulment of Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon prompted the Church of England to separate from the Roman Catholic Church. The English Church re-submitted to papal authority during Mary Tudor's brief reign (1553-8), but broke with the Roman Catholic Church in 1558 when Elizabeth I came to the throne. In the seventeenth century tensions within the church led to the English Civil war and the persecution of certain factions until the Toleration Act in 1689, which has remained the basis of the constitutional position of the Church ever since. The Church of England is the established church in England as well as the Mother Church for Anglican congregations around the world.

Civic Award of Merit (City of Toronto)
An award given to citizens who have made singularly notable contributions to the civic well-being of the community and in so doing have advanced the reputation and stature of the City of Toronto.

CIV/n [Civilization] [journal]
CIV/n, whose name is code for 'civilization,' was a Montreal literary magazine which published only seven issues between 1953 and 1955. In that time it published verse by Irving Layton, Leonard Cohen, Eli Mandel, and many other new poets.

Civil Honours List
Since the 1930s, Canada has recognized outstanding contributions to the nation with state, civil and military honours and medals. (The chief of these, the Order of Canada, was established in 1967 to mark the country's centenary.) Procedures are modelled on the British system, in which the government submits a list of nominees to the monarch, who bestows all honours and awards. In Canada, the list is traditionally announced by the Governor General – the monarch's representative – on July 1, Dominion Day.

Civil Liberties Association of Toronto
The Canadian Civil Liberties Union was formed in response to the Act to Protect the Province Against Communist Propaganda (Padlock Act) passed in Quebec in 1937. It is a 'non-political organization, the object of which is to maintain throughout Canada the rights of free speech, free press, free assembly, and other liberties, and to take all such action as seems advisable in furtherance of their subject.' The Toronto branch of the CCLU was renamed the Civil Liberties Association of Toronto in 1940. It monitored the federal government's implementation of Defense of Canada Regulations, and in 1946, focused on the dangers to civil liberties posed by Igor Gozenko's revelation of the existence of a Soviet intelligence network in Canada which had led to numerous arrests after it was made public in February. Membership in the Toronto Branch included many of E.J. Pratt's close friends, including past presidents B.K. Sandwell and Sir Ellsworth Flavelle.

The Collegian [magazine]
A monthly publication of the Methodist College, St. John's, Newfoundland.

Conservative Party
The Liberal-Conservative Party founded in 1854 by Sir John A. Macdonald and Sir George-Étienne Cartier became the Conservative Party in 1873. MacDonald was re-elected several times, but the Conservatives lost the 1896 election, and did not win another until 1957, by which time the party was known as the Progressive Conservative Party. After several ups and downs over the following decades, the Progressive Conservatives reformed as the Conservative Party of Canada in 2003.

Contemporary Verse [journal]
Founded in 1941 by Doris Ferne, Dorothy Livesay, Anne Marriott, and Floris McLaren, with Alan Crawley as editor, Contemporary Verse was a West Coast magazine which published modern Canadian poets until 1952.

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation [CCF]
Founded in 1932 in Calgary by members of several socialist, agrarian, co-operative, and labour groups, including the United Farmers of Alberta and the League for Social Reconstruction, the CCF intended to bring about economic reforms following the Great Depression. Its first president, J.S. Woodsworth, was elected in 1933 when the party adopted the Regina Manifesto, to which F.R. Scott was a major contributor. The Manifesto called for 'a planned and socialized economy in which our natural resources and principal means of production and distribution are owned, controlled and operated by the people.' It also advocated nationalization of transportation, communications, power, and other services; a national banking system; the organization of labour unions; unemployment insurance and workers' compensation; and publicly funded health care. The party was most successful in the 1940s, but its popularity declined in the 1950s when, as a socialist party, it was associated with communism. In 1961 it disbanded and reinvented itself as the New Democratic Party following an agreement with the Canadian Labour Congress.


Dalhousie Review [journal]
The Dalhousie Review was founded in 1921 by Herbert L. Stewart, who said of its purpose, 'It is by the free discussion of contemporary problems that knowledge regarding them is most widely diffused, and for this the magazine provides a medium.' It is still in publication today.

David Prize for Literature
The David Prize for literature was established in 1922 by Athanase David, then secretary of the Province of Québec in order to recognize and encourage the work of Québec writers. The Scientific Prize for research was also created in 1922, and in 1977 the number of prizes was increased to five by the Québec government, and a further five prizes were added from 1980 to 1997. The prizes today are worth $30,000 each, and the laureate also receives a parchment and a silver medal. Louise Morey Bowman received the David Prize for her book of verse Dream Tapestries (Toronto: Macmillan, 1924).

Le Devoir (Montreal)[newspaper]
Founded in 1910 by journalist and politician Henri Bourassa, Le Devoir is a French-language newspaper published in Montreal and circulated throughout Québec and Canada. It is the only independent large-circulation newspaper in Québec and one of few in Canada, and has historically favoured pacifism and social democracy. In recent years it has become associated with the Québec nationalist movement.

Dominion Day Civil Honours List
See Civil Honours List.

Dominion Drama Festival
The Dominion Drama Festival was an annual bilingual drama competition held in a different city each year. Founded in 1932 by a group of people with an interest in promoting amateur theatre, including the Earl of Bessborough, then Governor General of Canada, playwright Herman Voaden, Vincent Massey, and members of various theatre companies, it was suspended during World War II, then resumed until the 1970s. In 1970 it was renamed Theatre Canada and the element of competition was removed, but financial difficulties led to its cancellation in 1973.



Financial Post [newspaper]
First published in 1907 by John Bayne Maclean, the Financial Post was an English-language weekly Canadian business newspaper. In 1998 it became part of the new National Post newspaper.

Financial Times [newspaper]
Founded in 1888 in London, England by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, the Financial Times is one of the world's leading business news and information publications.

First Statement [journal]
A Montreal-based 'little magazine' of literary criticism and the work of new writers founded by John Sutherland in 1942. After three years it merged with Preview, a similar journal, to form Northern Review (1946-56) with Sutherland as editor.

Foster Parents Plan
Founded in 1937 as Foster Parents Plan for Children in Spain by British journalist John Langdon-Davies, the organization was originally set up to help children whose lives were disrupted by the Spanish Civil War. During World War II, the organization became known as Foster Parents Plan for War Children, and focused on helping children displaced by the war in Europe. In the late 1940s and 1950s, the organization expanded into less developed countries. In 1968, Foster Parents Plan of Canada was incorporated, and in 1970, the organization became known as Plan International. In 2000, the name was shortened to Plan, but the organization remains an independent not-for-profit non-denominational operation devoted to the welfare of children around the world.

Fresh Air Fund
Founded in 1901 by Toronto Star publisher Joseph Atkinson, the Fresh Air Fund helps children from disadvantaged families attend day and residential camps in the summer.


Gants du ciel [journal]
Gants du ciel was a Québec literary magazine founded by Guy Sylvestre. It ran from 1943 to 1956.

Globe and Mail [newspaper]
The Globe and Mail was formed in 1936 from the merger of the Mail and Empire and the Globe, founded in 1844 by George Brown. It is Canada's largest national newspaper and second-largest daily newspaper.

Governor General's Award [Governor General's Medal]
The Governor General's Literary Awards were created by Governor General Lord Tweedsmuir (John Buchan) after he was approached by the Canadian Authors Association who aimed to encourage the growth of Canadian literature. There were originally only two awards, one for fiction and one for non-fiction, both for works in English, and they were first awarded in 1936. Today there are seven categories with awards in both English and French, with a $25,000 prize.

Great Lakes Paper Company
Founded in 1919 as a pulp mill at Fort William, Ontario (now Thunder Bay) by Lewis L. Alstead and George A. Seaman, the Great Lakes Paper Company was at one time the largest pulp and paper manufacturing facility in the world. In the 1970s it was acquired by Canadian Pacific, then went through several phases of restructuring before becoming AbitibiBowater, which filed for bankruptcy protection in 2009.

Griffin Poetry Prize
The Griffin Poetry Prize was founded in 2000 by Scott Griffin with the goal of raising public awareness of the crucial role poetry plays in cultural life. Three Canadian and four international poets are shortlisted every year for poetry published the previous year, and the winners are announced after an evening of public readings. In 2010, the total prize money was increased to $200,000, making it the most generous poetry award in Canada, and the world's largest prize for a first edition single collection of poetry written in, or translated into, English.

Group of Seven
Founded in 1920, the Group of Seven was a loose affiliation of modern Canadian poets that originally included Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A.Y. Jackson, Franz Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J.E.H. MacDonald, and F.H. Varley, who had met in Toronto between 1911 and 1913. Artist Tom Thomson was also included in the group of friends, but died in 1917 before the Group was formed. Later members included A.J. Casson, Edwin Holgate, and LeMoine Fitzgerald. Although they worked in a number of styles, the members of the group are best known for their paintings of the Canadian landscape, and are often regarded as the initiators of the first major national Canadian art movement.

Guelph Daily Herald [newspaper]
The first Guelph Herald was founded in 1842 by Charles McDonnell, and was only published for nine months. Its second incarnation was as a weekly paper, established in 1847 by F.D. Austin, and it became a daily newspaper under Frederick Jasper Chadwick in the latter half of the nineteenth century. It was bought out by J. Innes McIntosh, the owner of the Guelph Mercury, in 1924.

Guggenheim Fellowship
Established in 1925 and administered by the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, the Guggenheim Fellowships are 'midcareer' grants awarded annually to 'men and women who have already demonstrated exceptional capacity for productive scholarship or exceptional creative ability in the arts.' Although originally limited to American participation, there are now two competitions: one for Canada and the United States, and one for Latin America and the Caribbean. Approximately 200 Fellowships are awarded each year.


Hamilton Spectator [newspaper]
Founded in 1846 by Robert Smiley, the Hamilton Spectator is published six days a week and circulates throughout Hamilton, Burlington, and surrounding areas.

Harper's [Harper & Brothers; Harper's Magazine; Harper's Weekly; Harper's Bazaar]
American publishing firm started in 1817 by brothers James and John Harper. It was originally named J. & J. Harper, becoming Harper & Brothers in 1833, then Harper & Row in 1962; it is presently known as HarperCollins. The company also publishes several periodicals.

Harvard Vocarium Records
A subsidiary of the Harvard Film Service, Harvard Vocarium Records was initiated in the 1930s by Harvard professor Frederick C. Packard, who also coined the term 'vocarium' to denote 'a place where recordings of voices are kept and used for study and enjoyment.' In the 1930s and 1950s, Packard recorded several prominent authors reading their own works, including T.S. Eliot, W.H. Auden, Tennessee Williams, Elizabeth Bishop, Ezra Pound, and in 1949, E.J. Pratt [E.J. Pratt Reading His Own Poems]. The audio collection continues to be housed in the Woodberry Poetry Room at Harvard, founded in 1931, with some recordings also available online.

Heliconian Club
The Toronto Heliconian Club for Women in the Arts and Letters was founded in 1909.

Here and Now [journal]
Founded in 1947 by University of Toronto students Paul Arthur and Catherine Harmon, Here and Now was a literary magazine which focused on design, illustration, and typography as well as content. Unfortunately, this made the costs of production too great to sustain, and the magazine folded in 1949.

Home Mission Board
The Home Mission Board of the United Church of Canada oversaw aid-receiving missions, coordinated an annual fundraising campaign, and organized new pastoral charges and mission fields.

Hospital for Sick Children
Founded in 1875 by a group of Toronto women led by Elizabeth McMaster, the Hospital for Sick Children was originally located in an 11-room house which was open 'for the admission and treatment of all sick children.' It has since evolved into a major centre for pediatric medicine, affiliated with the University of Toronto.

Humanities Research Council
Founded in 1943 as a non-profit organization at the instigation of the Canadian Social Science Research Council, the Humanities Research Council of Canada aimed to promote research and scholarship in the humanities, including such disciplines as literature, languages, history philosophy, fine arts, Canadian studies, and many more. It provided support mainly by providing research grants and fellowship, supporting the publication of scholarly research, coordinating conferences, and lobbying for the humanities. The HRCC depended largely on American philanthropic organizations for funding until the creation of the Canada Council in 1957, when the federal government became its primary means of financial support. When the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada was created in 1977, the HRCC changed its name to the Canadian Federation for the Humanities, and in 1996 it became the Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences.

Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario
Established in 1906 by the provincial Power Commission Act, the Hydro Electric Power Commission of Ontario built power lines to supply municipalities with power generated at Niagara Falls by private companies. Over the years it purchased and built its own generation stations and expanded into both coal and nuclear power generation. In 1974, the Power Corporation Act replaced the Power Commission Act, and the Hydro Electric Power Commission's name was changed to Ontario Hydro. In 1999 the Energy Competition Act led to the restructuring of Ontario Hydro into several separate companies.


Imperial War Graves Commission
Founded during World War I, the Imperial War Graves Commission was officially established by Royal Charter in 1917 with the mandate to record and care for the graves of fallen soldiers and civilians who had died as a result of enemy action. In 1960, the name was changed to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, and it continues to commemorate Commonwealth war dead.

Indian Affairs, Department of
The Department of Indian Affairs traces its origins back to the appointments of Sir William Johnson and John Stuart as the first two Superintendents of Indian Affairs in British North America in 1755. The Indian Act of 1876 then created the legislative framework for a national Indian Policy, and in 1880 the Indian branch became a Department under the direction of the Minister of the Interior, who also held the title of Superintendent General of Indian Affairs. In 1966, the Department of Indian Affairs became the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, and it is now known as Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Its vision today 'is a future in which First Nations, Inuit, Métis and northern communities are healthy, safe, self-sufficient and prosperous – a Canada where people make their own decisions, manage their own affairs and make strong contributions to the country as a whole.'

International P.E.N.
Founded in England in 1921 by Mrs. C.A. Dawson Scott and John Galsworthy, who became its first president, PEN aimed to represent 'Poets, Essayists and Novelists' and 'to promote intellectual co-operation and understanding among writers; to create a world community of writers that would emphasize the central role of literature in the development of world culture; and to defend literature against the many threats to its survival which the modern world poses.' Early members of PEN included Joseph Conrad, George Bernard Shaw, and H.G. Wells. The first Canadian PEN centre was established in 1926 in Montreal. In 1983, the English-language centre, PEN Canada, moved to Toronto, with the French-language Centre québécois du PEN remaining in Montreal. Today, PEN International is active in over 100 countries on six continents, advocating freedom of expression, peace, and friendship.



Kingston Whig-Standard [newspaper]
Founded by Edward John Barker in 1834 as a semi-weekly publication in Kingston, ON, the British Whig became a daily newspaper in 1849 and in 1926 merged with the Kingston Daily Standard to create the Kingston Whig Standard.

Knopf, Alfred A. Inc.
Established in 1915, Knopf specialized in publishing foreign authors as well as American.

Knox United Church
Formed in 1868, Knox United Church is the oldest United Church congregation in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and has been at its current location at 400 Edmonton Street for approximately one hundred years.


League for Social Reconstruction
Founded in 1931-32 by a group of left-wing intellectuals, including Frank Underhill and F.R. Scott, the League for Social Reconstruction responded to the effects of the Great Depression, industrialization, urbanization, and war with calls for social assistance and government regulation of industry. Disillusionment with socialism near the end of the 1930s and the increased organizational demands of the CCF, with which several members of the League were involved, led to the demise of the League in 1942.

Learned Societies of Canada
The Learned Societies of Canada was a conclave of scholarly associations, led by the Royal Society, which met annually during the last week of May and first week of June. The annual event is now called the Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, and meetings – organized by the Canadian Federation of Humanities and Social Sciences – alternate between eastern, western and central locations.

Liberal Arts Club
Student club at Victoria College.

Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party traces its roots back to mid-nineteenth century Reformers, including George Brown, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie, Joseph Howe, and Louis-Joseph Papineau. At the time of confederation and in the years following, power was in the hands of the Conservative Party. In 1896 Sir Wildrid Laurier led the Liberals to a win, and the Liberal Party dominated Canadian politics for most of the twentieth century.

Liverpool Post [newspaper]
Founded in 1855 by Michael James Whitty, the Liverpool Post was a daily newspaper until January 2012, when it became a weekly publication. E.J. Pratt's brother Arthur lived in Liverpool and was instrumental in having several of Pratt's books reviewed in the Liverpool Post.

Loblaw's Groceterias
In 1919, the first Loblaw Groceterias was opened in Toronto by Theodore Pringle Loblaw and J. Milton Cork, with a new grocery store format combining self-serve and cash-and-carry instead of counter service. The Loblaw chain grew over the next decade to include over 70 stores in Ontario, and continued to expand throughout Canada and the United States, opening more stores and introducing innovations like air conditioning and automatic doors in the 1940s, the No Name and President's Choice brands in the 1970s and 1980s, its own brand of financial services in the 1990s, and a clothing line in 2006.

London Free Press [newspaper]
Founded as the Canadian Free Press by William Sutherland in 1849 in London, Ontario, this weekly newspaper became the London Free Press in 1852 when it was purchased by Josiah Blackburn. It became a daily newspaper in 1855 and continues to circulate throughout Southern Ontario today.

London Mercury [magazine]
Founded in 1919 by John Collings Squire, the London Mercury was a literary magazine based in London, England, which published poetry, prose, literary essays, reviews, and critical surveys. Rolfe Arnold Scott-James took over from Squire as editor in 1934, and the magazine began to feature more Indian writers. In 1939 the magazine folded due to financial issues.

London Tabernacle (England)
The Metropolitan Tabernacle in London, England, traces its history to 1650, at a time when Baptist meetings were banned by Parliament. Benjamin Keach built its first chapel in 1688 as soon as the ban was lifted. The congregation continued to grow, and was the largest in England by the late 1700s. C.H. Spurgeon, a close friend of E.J. Pratt's father, the Reverend John Pratt, was pastor there for 38 years beginning in 1853. The congregation diminished after World War II but has risen again in recent years.

Lorne Pierce Gold Medal for Literature
Established in 1926 by Lorne Pierce, the medal is awarded every two years (if there is a suitable candidate) for an achievement of special significance and conspicuous merit in imaginative or critical literature written in either English or French. It is a medal of The Royal Society of Canada. E.J. Pratt was awarded the medal in 1940.


Maclean's [magazine]
Maclean's was founded in 1905 by Lt.-Col. John Bayne Maclean. It was originally named The Business Magazine, becoming The Busy Man's Magazine shortly after its founding; the name was changed to Maclean's in 1910. The magazine became a newsweekly in 1978 and continues to be published as such today.

Macmillan (Canada)
The Macmillan Company of Canada, founded in 1905 as a branch of the London based Macmillan Company, was established to market English and American publications. By the 1920s, it was producing Canadian books, cultivating a modern literary culture for Canada during an era of economic, and cultural upheaval. In 1973, Macmillan Canada was sold to Maclean-Hunter, which sold the firm to Gage Educational Publishing. By the late 1980s, the company ceased publication of literary books. In 1999, Macmillan Canada became an imprint of CDG Books, which maintained a minor list of publications until 2002.

Macmillan (UK)
Founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, the London based Macmillan Company is one of the oldest independent publishing houses. The Holtzbrinck Publishing Group purchased 70% of the company in 1995, and purchased the remaining shares in 1999, ending the Macmillan family's ownership of the company. Macmillan currently has two divisions: Springer Nature and Macmillan Publishers. Springer Nature is an academic book publisher that focuses on science and education, while Macmillan Publishers focuses on fiction and non-fiction.

Macmillan (US)
The first Macmillan Publishers USA office was opened by George Edward Brett in 1869, as a branch of the London based Macmillan Company. It was sold to the Brett family by the Macmillans in 1896, and became Macmillan Publishing. The Bretts remained in control of the American offices from 1869 until 1961, when it merged with Crowell Collier Publishing Company and became Macmillan, Inc. In 1989, it was acquired by British tycoon Robert Maxwell and eventually sold to Simon & Schuster in 1994. Pearson acquired the Macmillan name in the U.S. in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Pearson then sold the Macmillan Reference USA division to Thomson Gale in 1999.

Manchester Guardian [newspaper]
Founded in 1821 by John Edward Taylor, the Manchester Guardian was published weekly until 1836, then on Wednesdays and Saturdays until it became a daily publication in 1855. During the editorship of C.P. Scott, from 1872 until 1929, the Manchester Guardian achieved national and international recognition. Known simply as The Guardian since 1959, it continues to be an influential newspaper.

Maritime Women's Club of Montreal
The Maritime Women's Club of Montreal was active in the 1930s, 40s and 50s.

McGill Fortnightly Review [journal]
Founded in 1925 by A.J.M. Smith and F.R. Scott, who were then graduate students at McGill University, the McGill Fortnightly Review was a student magazine which published literary, artistic, and scientific works alongside pieces dealing with student concerns. It ceased publication in 1927 when its editors left the university.

McGill Group
Founded in the mid-1920s, the McGill Group originally included Leon Edel, John Glassco, A.M. Klein, Leo Kennedy, F.R.Scott, and A.J.M. Smith, most of whom attended McGill University as undergraduates. The Group advocated for a break with the traditional style of the Confederation poets and a move towards a modernist Canadian sensibility. The Group was also responsible for the publication of several small magazines, including the McGill Daily Literary Supplement, the McGill Fortnightly Review, and Canadian Mercury, and were associated with Preview.

Mendelssohn Choir
Founded in 1894 by Augustus Vogt, the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir is Canada's oldest, largest, and best-known choral ensemble.

Methodist Church of Canada
The Methodist Church in Canada traces its roots back to Laurence Coughlan, a lay preacher who arrived in Newfoundland in 1765, and William Black, who began preaching in the Maritimes in 1781. In 1828 an independent Canadian Conference was formed by Upper Canadian Methodists, and in 1884 various pioneering groups, including the Methodist Episcopal Church, merged to form the Methodist Church of Canada. In 1925 the Methodist Church joined with the Presbyterian Church and the Congregational Union to form the United Church of Canada, which is the largest Protestant denomination in Canada today.

Methodist College Home (St. John's)
A residence for students attending the Methodist College in St. John's, Newfoundland.

Methodist Episcopal Church
Formed in 1834 by those who opposed the union of the Upper Canadian Methodist Conference with the British Wesleyans, the Methodist Episcopal Church merged with other pioneering groups in 1884 to form the Methodist Church of Canada.

Modern Language Association [MLA]
Founded in 1883, the Modern Language Association of America is a professional association for scholars of language and literature, with almost 25,000 members in 100 countries. MLA members host an annual convention and maintain a publishing program that includes books, journals, style guides and an international bibliography. Through its progams, publications, and advocacy work, the association promotes the study and teaching of languages and literature by providing opportunities for members to share scholarly findings and teachings experiences.

The Monday Club
A men's club in Ottawa, Ontario.

Montreal Gazette [newspaper]
Founded in 1778 by Fleury Mesplet as a French-language newspaper, the Montreal Gazette is one of the oldest newspapers in North America. The original Gazette was only in publication for one year before Mesplet was imprisoned for participation in the American Revolutionary War, but he founded the second incarnation of the Gazette in 1785 as a bilingual weekly publication. In 1822 the newspaper became an English-language publication, and it is the only English-language daily published in Montreal today.

Montreal Star [newspaper]
Founded in 1869 by Hugh Graham, 1st Baron Atholstan, and George T. Lanigan, the Montreal Star dominated the English-language evening newspaper market by 1915. It continued as the most successful English-language paper in Montreal until 1978, when an eight-month printers' union strike led to the loss of customers and advertisers and its eventual demise in 1979.


N.K.V.D. [People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs]
The public and secret police organization of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin.

National Association of Teachers of Speech
(1923-45) Superceded the National Association of Academic Teachers of Public Speaking (1914-22), and superceded by Speech Association of America (1946-96) and the National Communication Association (1997–).

National Book Fair
An annual exhibition of Canadian writing and publishing sponsored by the Canadian Authors Association. The first National Book Fair was held at the King Edward Hotel in Toronto in November 1936 when Pelham Edgar was President of the CAA.

National Council for Canadian-Soviet Friendship
An international movement during World War II to support the alliance with Soviet Russia, founded in 1942 by President Franklin Roosevelt, with the Canadian national 'council' inaugurated by William Lyon Mackenzie King in Toronto on 22 June 1943, the second anniversary of the German attack on the USSR. [See EJP: MY, 305-6.]

National Club
Established in 1874 as a home for Canada First, a nationalist movement spearheaded by George Denison, Henry Morgan, Charles Mair, William Foster, and Robert Haliburton in order to 'promote a sense of national purpose and to lay the intellectual foundation for Canadian nationality.' It later became a meeting place for business and political leaders. It is located at 303 Bay St. in Toronto's financial district.

National Research Council [NRC]
Established in 1916 in response to the pressures of World War I, the National Research Council is an agency of the Government of Canada which promotes research and development through partnerships with Canadian industry.

National Trust Company
Formed by George Cox, president of the Bank of Commerce and several other Toronto businessmen, the National Trust Company of Ontario was incorporated in 1898. It acquired a federal charter in 1902, and quickly expanded, opening branches across the country. In 1984, the National Trust Company merged with Victoria and Grey Trust Company to form National Victoria and Grey Trustco, which was acquired by Scotiabank in 1997.

Naval Historical Section (Ottawa)
The Royal Canadian Navy began archiving its historical records during World War II, and appointed a Controller of Naval Information in 1940. The Controller only served in this position for a few months before being transferred, and although no replacement for this position was appointed, Dr. Gilbert Tucker became the first official Naval Historian shortly thereafter. In 1948, the Naval Historical Section was shut down, but it was re-established in 1952, and in 1965 it was amalgamated with Army and Air Force Historical Sections to form the Directorate of History.

New Directions [journal]
An American publishing firm and the journal of the same name which published avant-garde poetry.

New Liberty [journal]
In 1948 the Canadian edition of Liberty magazine was purchased by Jack Kent Cooke and Roy Thompson, who renamed it New Liberty.

New Outlook [journal]
The New Outlook was formed from the merger of Methodist, Presbyterian, and Congregationalist publications when The United Church of Canada was formed in 1925. In 1939 its name was changed to the United Church Observer.

New Play Society
Established in Toronto in 1946 by Dora Mavor Moore, The New Play Society was a professional, non-profit theatre company which produced original Canadian and other works in both French and English. It is best-known for its annual comedy revue Spring Thaw. In 1956, a school was opened by the company, but in 1971 the company was closed.

New York Herald [newspaper]
Founded in 1835 by James Gordon Bennett, Sr., the New York Herald was the most successful daily newspaper in the United States by 1845. In 1924, it was acquired by the New York Tribune, forming the New York Herald Tribune.

New York Herald Tribune [newspaper]
The New York Herald Tribune was created in 1924 when the New York Tribune merged with the New York Herald. The New York edition of the Herald Tribune folded in 1967, but its international edition is still being published.

New York Metropolitan Opera
Founded in 1883 by a group of wealthy businessmen, the New York Metropolitan Opera has set the standard for operatic productions, and popularized the genre through live broadcasts throughout the world, including – from the 1930s on – on the Canadian Boradcasting Corporation. In 1966 it moved from its original location on Broadway and 39th Street to larger facilities at Lincoln Center, and continues to stage more than 200 opera performances each season.

New York Philharmonic
Founded in 1842 by a group of musicians led by Ureli Corelli Hill, the New York Philharmonic is the oldest symphony orchestra in the United States. It has commissioned or premiered many important works from composers such as Dvořák, Rachmaninoff, Gershwin, and Copland.

New York Times Book Review
This weekly supplement was first published in 1896, and is one of the most influential book reviews in the industry.

Nobel Peace Prize
First awarded in 1901, the Nobel Peace Prize is one of five prizes bequeathed by Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel. It is awarded annually, if there is a suitable candidate, to a person or organization 'who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.'

Northern Review [journal]
The Montreal-based Northern Review was founded in 1945 from the merger of Preview and First Statement, and continued to focus on publishing new, modernist Canadian poets. John Sutherland, who had founded First Statement, became its managing editor, and the magazine folded with his death in 1956.


Odeon Theatres
Odeon Theatres was founded in 1941 by Nathan Nathanson and his son, Paul, in order to compete with the American Famous Players theatre chain in Canada. Odeon Theatres was purchased by the British Rank Organisation in 1945, and Pratt's friend Leonard Brockington became its President. In 1978, Odeon Canada merged with the Canadian Theatres chain, becoming Canadian Odeon Theatres, and in 1979 it was purchased by Cineplex, becoming the Cineplex Odeon Corporation.

Old St. Andrew's United Church (Toronto)
Founded in 1830 as a congregation of the Church of Scotland, St. Andrew's became known as Old St. Andrew's when the congregation split and the majority moved to a new location 1876. Old St. Andrew's joined the United Church at its formation in 1925. In 1950 it merged with Westminster-Central United to become St. Andrew's United, and moved to the location of Westminster-Central on Bloor Street.

Ontario Research Foundation
Established as an independent corporation by a provincial Act in 1928, the Ontario Research Foundation gradually shifted its focus from academic to industrial development. The Foundation was originally funded through the Canadian Manufacturers' Association and a matching provincial grant. Starting in 1967, provincial grants were tied to foundation income through industrial contracts, and exploratory research was federally funded. Government funding ceased in the 1990s, and the Foundation was taken over by private companies.

Orange Lodge
A Protestant fraternal order founded in the seventeenth century to bolster Protestant succession to the British throne. It was formally organized in Canada in 1830, and its members were influential in politics and business until the 1950s, especially in southern Ontario.

Order of Canada
Established in 1967 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the Order of Canada is the second highest honour for merit and is awarded in recognition of a lifetime of outstanding achievement, dedication to the community, and service to the nation. Its motto is 'desiderantes meliorem patriam' (they desire a better country).

Ottawa Citizen [newspaper]
Founded in 1845 by William Harris, the Ottawa Citizen was originally a weekly called the Bytown Packet. Under the new ownership of John Bell in 1849, when Bytown was incorporated as Ottawa, the newspaper was renamed the Ottawa Citizen, and in 1865 it became a daily publication.

Ottawa Journal [newspaper]
Founded in 1885 by A.S. Woodburn, it merged with the Ottawa Free Press in 1917. In the 1970s it began to experience financial difficulties, and folded in 1980.

Outpost [journal]
A British journal. Earle Birney was asked to edit a Canadian issue.


Partisan Review [journal]
An American journal of literature and politics founded in 1934 by William Phillips, Philip Rahv, and Sender Garlin, the Partisan Review was a left-wing political and literary journal whose contributors included Saul Bellow, Doris Lessing, Philip Roth, Hannah Arendt, Susan Sontag, and George Orwell, among many others. Its quarterly publication ceased in 2003.

Peterborough Examiner [newspaper]
The Peterborough Examiner has been the only daily newspaper servicing the Peterborough, Ontario area since 1847. It was edited by Robertson Davies between 1942 and 1955, and won several awards.

pm magazine [journal]
The little magazine focused on arts events in and around Vancouver. Founded in November 1951, the monthly expired in 1952 after only 3 issues. The chief editor was Yvonne Agazarian and her co-editors were George Wright & John Brockington. (See Dean Irvine, Editing Modernity: Women and Little-Magazine Cultures in Canada, 1916-56 [Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2008], pp. 238-44.)

Poetry: A Magazine of Verse [Poetry (Chicago)] [journal]
Poetry: A Magazine of Verse was founded in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, with the mission statement 'to print the best English verse which is being written today, regardless of where, by whom, or under what theory of art it is written.' It thus provided an outlet for many new Modernist poets who felt compelled to break with established tradition. E.J. Pratt repeatedly submitted poems to Poetry, but none was accepted until 1941. The magazine continues to be published today, and is the longest-running monthly verse publication in the English-speaking world.

Preview [journal]
The Montreal poets and critics sometimes who produced, and published in this 'little' magazine included Patrick Anderson, author of several small books of verse; F.R. Scott, the 'old man' of the group and only briefly a member; Bruce Ruddick, a psychoanalyst who had published verse in several magazines; and P.K. Page. The group broke up in 1946 and Preview merged with First Statement to create Northern Review.

Protocol [journal]
A short-lived (two issues) journal initiated by the members of a small literary club of St. John's writers who in 1943-4 included Harold Horwood, his brother Charles, Irving Fogwill ('John Avalon'), and David G. Pitt.

Pulitzer Prize
Established in 1917, the Pulitzer Prize is an American award for achievements in journalism, literature, musical composition, and public service.


Queen's Faculty Players
The faculty drama group at Queen's University.

Queen's Quarterly [journal]
Queen's Quarterly was founded in 1893 by George Monro Grant, Sir Sanford Fleming, and John Watson, among others, with the aim 'to offer both the academic and the general reader a lively collection of analysis and reflection, in fields as diverse as international relations, science policy, literary criticism, travel writing, economics, religion, short fiction, and poetry.' It continues to be published today.

Queen's University Drama Guild
A student organization under the mentorship of Dr. William Angus from 1938 to 1963.


The Rebel [journal]
Founded in 1917 by Samuel H. Hooke of Victoria University, The Rebel was a university magazine which evolved into the Canadian Forum in 1920.

Robert Simpson Ltd. [Simpson's, Simpsons, Simpson, the Robert Simpson Company]
See Simpson's.

Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church is one of the oldest institutions and the largest Christian church in the world, with over one billion members worldwide. Based in Vatican City, Rome, it became known as the 'Roman' Church during the Reformation.

Rosicrucian Order
A secret society founded in the seventeenth century and based upon two anonymous manifestos published throughout Europe. Its symbol is a cross with a rose at the centre.

Rotary International [Rotary Clubs]
Founded in 1905 in Chicago by Paul P. Harris, Rotary International is a service organization which soon grew to include clubs on six continents, and now has over 32,000 chapters. Its motto is 'Service Above Self.'

Royal Army Medical Corps
Medical services in the British army can be traced back to the seventeenth century, and were incorporated into the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1898. The RAMC provides medical services to all British Army personnel and their families in both war and peace time.

Royal Canadian Air Force [R.C.A.F.]
The Canadian Air Force (CAF) was established in 1920 as a non-permanent organization to give 28-day refresher courses every other year to former officers and airmen who had served in the British Royal Air Force during World War I. However, by 1924, the Department of National Defence had been created and the CAF became the Royal Canadian Air Force.

Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve
The Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve was established in 1923 as a replacement for the Royal Navy Canadian Volunteer Reserve.

Royal Canadian Navy
Established by the Naval Service Bill in 1910, the Canadian Navy was given Royal Sanction on 29 August 1911. The original navy had only two vessels. In World War I, its six ships patrolled North American coastlines to deter German attacks. In World War II, the force grew from eleven ships to become the third largest naval force in the world, after the United States Navy and Royal Navy. It took on responsibility for the entire Northwestern Atlantic theatre and played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic. The Canadian navy participated in the Korean War (1950-50) and Cold War. In 1968, the Royal Canadian Navy, Army and Air Force were amalgamated as the Canadian Armed Forces. In 2011, the Royal Canadian Navy was officially re-established as a separate service.

Royal Empire Society
Originally named the Colonial Society, this educational society and private members club devoted to the preservation of the values of the British Empire (and later the Commonwealth) later became the Royal Colonial Society, the Royal Colonial Institute, and finally the Royal Empire Society. With the establishment of the British Commonwealth (now called the Commonwealth of nations) in 1949, it was named the Royal Commonwealth Society.

Royal Ontario Museum
Established on 16 April 1912 and opened on 19 March 1914, the Royal Ontario Museum is a museum of world culture and natural history. Archeologist and Egyptologist Charles T. Currelly (1876-1957), also Professor of Archaeology at the University of Toronto, was appointed its first Director in 1907 and held the post until 1946.

Royal Society of Canada (La Société royale du Canada) [RSC]
Established by an act of Parliament in 1883, the Royal Society is Canada's national academy, devoted to the promotion of learning research in the arts and humanities, social sciences and sciences in both official languages. Fellows of the Royal Society are elected in recognition of outstanding contributions in their artistic or scholarly fields, and the society acknowledges extraordinary merit with medals and awards, including the Lorne Pierce Medal 'for an achievement of special significance and conspicuous merit in imaginative or critical literature written in either English or French.'

Ryerson Press
Established in 1829 by the Methodist Church in Toronto, Ontario, the Canadian publishing company, formerly known as the Methodist Book Room, specialized in literary, educational and historical publications. Reverend Samuel Fallis changed the name to Ryerson Press to commemorate Egerton Ryerson, founder in 1830 of the original Methodist Press in Canada. As editor-in-chief from 1920 until 1960, Lorne Pierce made Ryerson Press one of the most productive publishing houses in Canada, using his position as editor to encourage the development of a Canadian identity. In 1970, the company was sold to McGraw-Hill, whose Canadian division was renamed McGraw-Hill Ryerson. McGraw-Hill Ryerson is still in operation as McGraw Hill's Canadian subsidiary, now concentrating on educational and business non-fiction titles.


Saturday Evening Post (New York) [newspaper]
First published in 1728 by Samuel Keimer as the Pennsylvania Gazette, this newspaper was acquired by Benjamin Franklin in 1729 and turned into the largest circulation paper in the colonies. In 1821, it was renamed the Saturday Evening Post, publishing articles on current events and human interest, editorials, humour and cartoons, letters, poetry, and works of fiction. Famous for its covers featuring artwork by Norman Rockwell, it was published weekly until 1969, when the magazine folded. It was revived in 1971 on a quarterly basis, and is currently published six times a year.

Saturday Night [magazine]
Founded in 1887 by Edmund E. Sheppard, Saturday Night was a Canadian literary and general interest magazine which went through several incarnations as a weekly, bi-weekly, and monthly publication. Publication was suspended in 2005, and although a Saturday Night blog was started in 2008, it has not been updated since its first day's posts.

Saturday Review of Literature [Saturday Review; SRL] [newspaper]
The Saturday Review of Literature was first published in 1920 as the Literary Review, a weekly supplement to the New York Post. It became the Saturday Review of Literature in 1924, and its named changed again to the Saturday Review in 1952. Norman Cousins was its longest-running editor, from 1940 until 1971, after which the magazine began to decline. After several years of insolvency, publication ceased in 1984, although it was briefly revived as an online publication 1993.

Scribner Bookstore (New York)
A bookstore in the Charles Scribner's Sons Building at 597 Fifth Avenue, built in 1912 as a showcase for the publishing house of the same name. A Manhatten landmark, it relocated in the 1980s, and was later bought out by Barnes and Noble.

Scribner's Magazine [magazine]
First published in 1887, Scribner's Magazine was an American illustrated monthly put out by Charles Scribner's Sons publishing house. It was primarily a literary magazine, and was the first magazine to introduce colour illustrations. It ceased publication in 1939.

Scrutiny [journal]
An influential British journal of criticism, Scrutiny was founded in 1932 by F.R. Leavis, who remained principal editor of the quarterly publication until it folded in 1953.

Seranus Memorial Prize
This prize was donated by Margaret Howard for the best poem in Volume 1 of Canadian Poetry Magazine in memory of the minor poet and fiction writer, Susan Francis Harrison, who wrote under the nom-de-plume 'Seranus.' It was awarded only once, to George Herbert Clarke, in 1937, shortly after Margaret Howard`s death.

Shakespeare Festival (Stratford, ON)
The Stratford Shakespearean Festival, founded in 1953 in Stratford, Ontario, performs the Shakespeare canon as well as a broad range of classical and contemporary works.

Simpson's [Robert Simpson, Ltd.]
Founded in Newmarket, Ontario, in 1858 by Robert Simpson and a partner, the Simpsons dry goods store moved to Toronto in the early 1870s. The store at the corner of Queen and Yonge streets burned down in 1895, but was quickly rebuilt and reopened. In the early twentieth century Simpsons began a mail order business in addition to its brick and mortar stores, and in 1951 it formed an association with Sears which assumed control of the mail order side of the business. In the 1950s and 1960s several other Simpsons and Simpsons-Sears stores were opened across the country. In 1978 the Simpsons chain was acquired by the Hudson's Bay Company, and the Simpsons stores were gradually converted to Bay stores. In 1991 the flagship downtown Toronto Simpsons store was the last to be changed to a Bay store.

Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary [IHM]
A Catholic religious institute. The original community of the institute is headquartered in Monroe, Michigan. Among other educational institutions in Michigan and Pennsylvania, the sisters run Marygrove College in Detroit.

Solway String Quartet
Founded by Maurice Solway (1906-2001) in 1947, with Jacob Groob, Nathan Green(berg), and Marcus Adeney. The quartet gave its first concert in March 1948 and gave public and CBC performances until 1968. They also toured extensively throughout small-town Ontario.

St. Andrew's Society
In the nineteenth century, chapters of the St. Andrew's Society (named for the patron saint of Scotland) were established in various centres in Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic colonies to support immigrants from Scotland and encourage and maintain Scottish culture. A major annual event in the annual calendar is the Robbie Burns dinner on January 25.

St. Andrew's United Church (London)
Originally a Presbyterian church, St. Andrew's in London, Ontario has been at its current location since 1868. It joined the United Church at its formation in 1925 and is now known as First-St. Andrew's United Church.

St. Andrew's United Church (Westmount, Montreal)
Established in 1885, Melville Presbyterian Church became St. Andrew's United Church when its congregation joined the United Church at its formation in 1925. In 1985 St. Andrew's merged with Dominion-Douglas Church, which became Mountainside United Church in 2005.

St. George United Church (Toronto)
Established in 1890, Eglinton Presbyterian Church became St. George United Church in 1925 when it joined the United Church at its foundation in 1925. In 1999 it amalgamated with Eglinton United Church to form Eglinton-St. George's, which remains in the original St. George's location. E.J. Pratt was a member of St. George's.

St. John's Daily News [newspaper]
Founded in 1894 by John A. Robinson, the Daily News was originally largely composed of advertising and serial fiction, along with local and a small amount of international news. The paper expanded over the following decades, but went into receivership in 1984 after a few years of financial difficulties.


Talents Service Club
The Talents Service Club was founded in January 1952 by Dorothy Knight, Ida Pashley and Marian Whytall; Claire Pratt was one of 12 charter members. Members were called on to use their 'talents' to raise money for people who were in need but who could not appeal to any established agency for assistance. The Club was a great success, growing to about 35 members, with American singer and entertainer Eddie Cantor serving as its honourary president.

Tamarack Review [journal]
Founded in 1956 by Robert Weaver and Anne Wilkinson, the Tamarack Review was a Canadian literary journal which published fiction, poetry, travel writing, autobiography, criticism, and drama. It ceased publication in 1982.

Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union [TASS]
The official news agency of the USSR.

Timothy Eaton Memorial Church
Founded in 1914, Timothy Eaton Memorial Church was named after department store founder Timothy Eaton, whose widow and son donated the land for the church and financed its original construction. In 1925 the Methodist congregation joined the newly formed United Church. It is still active in the same location today.

Tomorrow [journal]
Published from 1942 until 1962, Tomorrow was an American magazine specializing in parapsychological subjects. It was edited by Eileen J. Garrett.

Toronto Mail and Empire [newspaper]
Formed in 1895 from the merger of the Conservative newspapers the Toronto Mail and the Toronto Empire, the Mail and Empire then merged in 1936 with the Toronto Globe to form the Globe and Mail.

Toronto Star [Toronto Daily Star] [newspaper]
Founded in 1892, the Toronto Star struggled in its early years but became successful under the editorship of Joseph E. Atkinson, who by 1913 had turned it into Toronto's largest paper. It has traditionally taken a liberal standpoint, and continues to be guided by the principles set down by Atkinson in its early years: 'a strong and united Canada, civic engagement, individual and civil liberties, a necessary role for effective government and the rights of working people.' It is currently Canada's largest-circulation daily newspaper.

Toronto Star Weekly [newspaper]
Founded in 1910 by J.E. Atkinson, the publisher of the Toronto Star, this weekly supplement published literary works, articles, art and illustrations, and comic strips and cartoons by a number of well-known figures, including Morley Callaghan, Ernest Hemingway, Arthur Lismer, and Fred Varley. It ceased publication in 1973.

Toronto Symphony Orchestra [TSO]
The Orchestra was founded as 'The New Symphony' in 1922 by a group of Toronto musicians and Viennese-born conductor Luigi von Kunits, and gave its first performance in April 1923 at Massey Hall. In 1927, it was renamed the 'Toronto Symphony Orchestra.' Von Kunits served as Music Director until 1931, and was succeeded by Sir Ernest MacMillan who led the symphony until 1956. There have been eight subsequent directors, and the TSO moved into Roy Thompson Hall in 1982.

Toronto Writers Club
The club was founded in 1923 by Elton Jonson and Jack Charlesworth to replace the Toronto Men's Press Club. Among the club's members were W.A. Deacon, E.J. Pratt, Bertram Brooker, Merrill Denison, C.W. Jefferys, Wilson MacDonald, Gordon Sinclair, and Charles G.D. Roberts [Clara Thomas and John Lennox, William Arthur Deacon: A Canadian Literary Life (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982), 135-6)].

Trinity United Church (Toronto)
Founded in 1887 as Trinity Methodist Church, the congregation joined the United Church in 1925. In 1980 it amalgamated with St. Paul's-Avenue Road United Church to form Trinity-St. Paul's, which is housed in the original Trinity Methodist Church building, completed in 1889.

Tweedsmuir Award [Tweedsmuir Medal]
In 1937, the Governor General, Lord Tweedsmuir, had given a medal for the best poem in the first volume of Canadian Poetry Magazine. As the Seranus Memorial Prize for the best poem in Volume 1 had already been announced, the Tweedsmuir medal was applied to the poems in Volume 2. It was awarded posthumously to Annie Charlotte Dalton. (The Tweedsmuir medal was a separate prize from the Governor General's Awards, which were sometimes referred to in the media as 'Tweedsmuir Awards' during the first year they were awarded).


United Church of Canada
The largest Protestant denomination in Canada, created in 1925 by the union of the Methodist Church of Canada, the Congregational Union of Canada, and 70% of the Canadian Presbyterian Church.

United Church Observer [magazine]
The United Church Observer is the oldest continuously published magazine in North America and the second oldest in the English speaking world, having been founded as the Christian Guardian by Egerton Ryerson in 1829. With the formation of the United Church of Canada in 1925, the Christian Guardian merged with Presbyterian and Congregationalist publications to form The New Outlook, and the name was changed to the United Church Observer in 1939. In 1986 the publication became independently incorporated, although it still has close ties with the United Church.

University of Toronto Quarterly [journal]
University of Toronto Quarterly was founded in 1931 under the editorship of George Sidney Brett. Focused on the humanities, UTQ emphasizes Canadian scholarship, publishing interdisciplinary articles and review essays that attract both general readers and specialists. Between 1935 and 1947 it was edited by A.S.P. Woodhouse, who firmly established its reputation as a leading international journal.

University Women's Club (Toronto)
Founded by twenty-two female university graduates in 1903 to develop opportunities for 'the growth and advancement of women through the pursuit of intellectual, cultural and social interests in a warm and nurturing environment' ('Our History,' The University Women's Club of Toronto. The University Women's Club of Toronto was the first UWC in Canada. In 1929, the club purchased the house at 162 St. George Street which has been its permanent home.


Vancouver Daily Province [newspaper]
Founded in 1898, the tabloid format Province is one of the largest daily newspapers in British Columbia.

Varsity [journal]
Founded in 1880 at the University of Toronto, The Varsity is the second-oldest student newspaper in Canada. It publishes weekly during the school year on international, national, and local news, as well as campus issues, science, arts, and sports, and includes comments sections and features.

Victoria Daily News [newspaper]
The daily newspaper in Victoria, British Columbia.


Wartime Information Board
Founded 9 September 1942, the WIB replaced the Bureau of Public Information as the chief agency of wartime propoganda in Canada. Its purpose was to coordinate the distribution of information on the course of the war to the public.

Winnipeg Free Press [newspaper]
Founded as the Manitoba Free Press in 1872 by W.F. Luxton and John A. Kenny, and retitled the Winnipeg Free Press in 1931, this is the oldest newspaper in Western Canada, and has the largest readership in Manitoba today.

Women's Missionary Society of the United Church of Canada
In 1926, three denominational mission societies merged to form the Women's Missionary Society. Their educational program included work with children and youth through organizations such as Mission Bands and Canadian Girls in Training. Their publication program included World Friends and The Missionaary Monthly. In 1962, the WMS merged with the Women's Association to become United Church Women (UCW). (See Phyllis D. Airhart, "Women in the United Church of Canada," Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America, [Indiana University Press, 2006] 361-8.)

World Friends [magazine]
World Friends was a United Church children's magazine whose founding editor was Viola Pratt. It was published from 1929 until 1955.

Writers' War Committee
A group set up by the Canadian Authors Association to work with the Wartime Information Board.


Yale Review [journal]
The Yale Review was founded in 1819 as a theological quarterly, The Christian Spectator, by a group of Yale faculty members. Its name was changed to the New Englander in 1843 and it began to cover topics outside of theology, including economics and history; in 1885 it was renamed once again to the New Englander and Yale Review. In 1892 its name was changed to The Yale Review, but it was not until 1911, under the editorship of Wilbur Cross, that the magazine took on its modern form, which includes articles, fiction, poetry, and reviews.



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