Water Science

As courses in this program may range from Biology to Chemistry to Environmental Science, there is no single convention for citation. Please follow the citation requirements as indicated in your course syllabus or follow the style used by an article you have cited in your lab or paper.

The citation conventions provided by the Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (CJFAS) would be suitable for an assignment in this program; you can find more detailed information on this style in CJFAS instructions to authors.

In-Text Citations for CJFAS

• Include the author’s last name and the year of publication. Do NOT put a comma in between the name and the date.


(Harrison 2003)


• It is rare to quote in a science paper; however, if you do,or if you are citing a specific section of a work, include "p." followed by the page number, where available.


(Marlow 2007, p.191)


• When citing a source with two authors use the word “and” in between the words (rather than the ampersand, &, used in APA).


(Hill and Kaplan 1999)


• When citing a source with three or more authors, list the first author’s l surname followed by " et al." (Note that you must list all of the author’s names in the references page).


(Walker et al. 2008)


References Page Using CFJAS

  • The page should be titled References
  • The titles of books and journals are not put in italics.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated according to the form given in the Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index.
  • The volume number of journals is put in bold
  • The names of genera and species are italicized.
  • If you access a journal article online, include a DOI (digital object identifier) number or a URL address.

Book with One Author

Bocking, S. 2004. Nature's experts: science, politics, and the environment. Rutgers University Press,  New Brunswick, NJ.

Chapter/Article in an Edited Book

Dewailly, E., and Furgal, C. 2003. POPs, the Environment and Public Health. In Northern Lights Against POPs: Combating Toxic Threats in the Arctic. Edited by D. Downey and T. Fenge. McGill - Queen's University Press, Montreal.

Article in Journal with a Document Object Identifier (DOI)

Weisz, E.J. and Yan, N. D. 2010. Relative value of limnological, geographic, and human use variables as predictors of the presence of Bythotrephes longimanus in Canadian Shield lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 67(3): 462–472. doi: 10.1139/F09-197.   

Article in a Journal with a URL Address

Robillard, M.M., and Fox, M.G. 2006. Historical changes in abundance and community structure of warmwater piscivore communities associated with changes in water clarity, nutrients and temperature. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63(4): 798-809. Available from http://proquest.umi.com


309&VName=PQD. [accessed 24 March 2010].

Documents/Sections of Websites

Environment Canada. 2008. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators, 2008 highlights [online]. Available from http://www.ec.gc.ca

/indicateurs-indicators/default.asp?lang=en&n=7D7BDF1E-1 [accessed 24 March 2010].

Update July 2017

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