Physics and Astronomy

This department recommends the style of the Canadian Journal of Physics (CJP).  However, as there are a range of documentation styles used in the fields of Physics and Astronomy, you should always refer to your course syllabus or consult with your professor about his or her preferences.

Canadian Journal of Physics journal cover

In-Text Citations in CJP Style

  • CJP prescribes a citation-sequence system for in-text references.
  • Place a number in square brackets at the end of the sentence that contains the information that you are citing [1].
  • This number corresponds to the order in which the source first appears in your paper. As you write your paper, number your sources consecutively.
    • E.g., If you have already cited four sources and you now wish to refer to information from a new source, then you would place a [5] at the end of the sentence.
  • Each source corresponds with only one number
    • E.g., If you later refer to information from the fourth source cited, you would place a [4] at the end of the sentence.

References Section in CJP Style

  • Put the heading "References" at the top of the page.
  • List all published, in-press, or world wide web sources that are cited by number in your paper.
  • Number each source sequentially by the order it is first cited in your paper.
  • Periodicals are listed using abbreviated forms prescribed by CASSI (Chemical Abstracts Service): http://cassi.cas.org/search.jsp

General Guidelines

  • Use the title "References"
  • Include all sources cited within the text of your paper
  • List each numbered source sequentially by the order it is first cited in your paper

Formatting Guidelines

  • Author names
    • Initials, separated by periods and no spaces, precede surnames
    • Separate authors with a comma and the word "and" before the final author
  • Journal articles
    • Abbreviate journal titles as per the standard abbreviations issued by CASSI (Chemical Abstracts Service)
    • Do not include titles of journal articles
    • Include the DOI number if accessed online
    • Include the volume number in boldface, the initial page number, and the year in parentheses
  • Other sources
    • Include the title and capitalize in title format (all principle words)
    • For sections of books, refer to page, page range, or chapter numbers at the end of the reference
    • Do not include chapter titiles


Journal Article

W.A. Atkinson, J. David Bazak, and B.M. Andersen. Phys. Rev. 109, 267004 (2012). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.267004

Whole Book

W.H. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, and B.P. Flannery. Numerical recipes in C, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1994.

Chapter of a Book

K. Ogata. State space analysis control system. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. 1967. Ch. 6.

Section of a Book

C. Camy-Peyret and J.-M. Flaud. In Molecular Spectroscopy Modern Research. Vol. 3. Edited by K. Narahari Rao. Academic Press, New York. 1985. pp. 69–110.


Updated December 2013

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