Forensic Science

Many forensic science courses refer to the Journal of Forensic Sciences' Instructions to Authors for guidelines on referencing. This style is very similar to CSE's Vancouver Style, but it has slight variations.

In Text Citations Using JFS Style

JFS style uses a citation-sequence system for in-text references.

  • Place a number in parentheses at the end of the sentence that contains the information that you are citing (1).
  • This number corresponds to the order in which the source first appears in your paper. As you write your paper, number your sources consecutively.
    • E.g., if you have already cited four sources, and you now wish to refer to information from a new source, then you would place a (5) at the end of the sentence.
  • Each source corresponds with only one number.
    • E.g., Later, if you refer to information from the fourth source cited, you would place a (4) at the end of the sentence.

References Page Using JFS Style

General Guidelines

  • Put the heading "References" in boldface at the top of the page.
  • List all published, in-press, or world wide web sources that are cited by number in your paper. Personal communications are not valid references and should be cited in the text, in parentheses, at the appropriate location.
  • Number each source sequentially by the order it is first cited in your paper.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated according to the Index Medicus.
  • Below you will find examples of how to cite common sources. For information about how to cite other types of sources see the Journal of Forensic Sciences' Instructions to Authors.

Formatting Guidelines

  • Titles of articles, chapters, books, etc.
    • Capitalize first letter only; do not capitalize first word after colon
  • Author names
    • Last name followed by initials
    • Separate each author by a comma
    • Do not use a comma after the last name to separate from initials
    • Do not use a period or space between or after initials
  • Page numbers
    • Shorten second number in page range when possible.
    • E.g., 226-229 should be written as 226-9 and 1245-1464 should be written as 1245-464.
  • No boldface or italics used.


Journal Article

Swanson BJ, Kyle CJ. Relative influence of temporal and geographic separation of source populations in a successful marten reintroduction. J Mammal 2007 Oct;88(5):1346-8.

Note: if a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (i.e., subsequent issues of a volume continue the page numbering from the previous issue, rather than beginning with page 1), the month and issue number may be omitted.

Book with One Author

Freeland J. Molecular ecology. 2nd rev. ed. Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 2011.

Chapter/Article in an Edited Book

Conrad KF, Fox R, Woiwod IP. Monitoring biodiversity: measuring long-term changes in insect abundance. In: Stewart AJA, New TR, Lewis OT, editors. Insect conservation biology. Oxford: The Royal Entomological Society, 2007;203-25.


Back to Find Style by Discipline

Updated: November 2013