Computing & Information Systems

The most accepted referencing format for this discipline is the IEEE style. The referencing guidelines begin on page six of their manual.

In Text Citations Using IEEE Style

IEEE style uses a citation-sequence system for in-text references.

  • Place a number in square brackets at the end of the sentence, before the punctuation, that contains the information that you are citing [1].
  • This number corresponds to the order in which the source first appears in your paper. As you write your paper, number your sources consecutively.
    • E.g., if you have already cited four sources, and you now wish to refer to information from a new source, then you would place a [5] at the end of the sentence.
  • Each source corresponds with only one number.
    • E.g., Later, if you refer to information from the fourth source cited, you would place a [4] at the end of the sentence.
  • When using author names in the sentence, use et al. when more than three authors are listed.
  • Note that you can use the reference number in text as you normally would (following the author name or at the end of a sentence), can you can also use a reference number as a noun.
    • E.g., “As stated in [2]…”

References Page Using IEEE Style

General Guidelines

  • Centre the heading "References" at the top of the page.
  • Number each source sequentially by the order it is first cited in your paper.
  • Numbers should be flush left in square brackets and should for their own column (all lines of each citation are equally indented).
  • Abbreviate journal titles – no specific style is recommended

Formatting Guidelines

  • Author names
    • Initials precede surnames
    • Use a period and space between and after initials
    • Separate each author by a comma and the last two authors by “, and”
  • Titles of articles, chapters, books, etc.
    • Capitalize first letter only; do not capitalize first word after colon.
    • Titles of journals, books, and websites are italicized
    • All other titles are enclosed in quotation marks and are not italicized.


The style guide has extensive examples for a variety of sources – see page 7 and onward. In addition, Dalhousie University has a helpful list of examples.


Updated December 2013

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