How to Create a Bibliography

At the end of a paper, you need to include a Bibliography that lists all of the sources to which you referred in writing your paper.

  • The title “Bibliography” is centered and placed one inch from the top of the page.
  • Sources are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.
  • List multiple works by the same author in alphabetical order by the title of the work.
  • Each source is listed along with its full publication information.
  • The second line of a bibliographic entry is indented (the reverse of a footnote/endnote).
  • The Chicago Manual of Style recommends that you double space all entries to maintain consistency with the manuscript. However, this is not a convention followed by all academics; please follow the directions of your course instructor.

For example:


Sangster, Joan. Girl Trouble: Female Delinquency in English Canada.

Toronto: Between the Lines, 2002.



  • In footnotes, information is separated by commas, while in the bibliography it is separated by periods.
  • In footnotes, the author's first name is listed first, while in the bibliography the author's last name is listed first.
  • The titles of books and journals are put in italics.
  • The titles of articles are put in quotation marks.
  • All key words in titles are capitalized.

Our site provides detailed information on how to create bibliographic entries for different sources.