How to Create Footnotes or Endnotes
Using footnotes or endnotes involves placing a superscript number at the end of a sentence with information (paraphrase, quotation or data) that you wish to cite. The superscript numbers should generally be placed at the end of the sentence to which they refer. They should be placed after any punctuation marks except for the dash.
Footnotes/endnotes begin with 1 and are numbered consecutively throughout the entire essay. Further information on how to use computer software to insert reference numbers into the text of a paper is available.
A superscript number refers to a footnote or endnote which contains all
of the publishing information and the page number for the information referenced.
Footnotes appear on the bottom of the page that contains the sentence to which it refers.
Endnotes are listed at the end of the paper on separate pages. On the top of the first page, the title “Notes” is centered one inch from the top of the page. Endnote pages are placed before the bibliography.
Many professors prefer footnotes to endnotes. Check with your professor to see which style he or she prefers.
What to Include in the Footnote/Endnote
The format for a footnote or endnote varies depending on whether it refers to a book, article, or online source. There are some key characteristics common to all footnotes and endnotes:
- The footnote/endnote begins with the same superscript number as the one that appears in the paper and is followed by a period.
- Footnotes/endnotes always include a specific page number or numbers where the cited information can be found.
- The first footnote/endnote to a source provides the full publishing information.
1. Carolyn Kay, Art and the German Bourgeoisie: Alfred Lichtwark and Modern Painting in Hamburg, 1886-1914 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002), 100.
- Subsequent footnote/endnotes for the same source are shortened to provide only the author’s last name, short title, and page number.
2. Kay, Art and the German Bourgeoisie, 51.
- If a footnote/endnote is from the same source as the one immediately preceding it, the term “ibid.” can be used in place of the author and title. You must still include a page number unless the page number is identical to the previous footnote as well.
Our site provides detailed information on how to create footnotes/endnotes for different types of sources.
- In footnotes, information is separated by commas, while in the bibliography, it is separated by periods.
- In footnotes, the author's first name is listed first, while in the bibliography, the author's last name is listed first.
- The titles of books and journals are put in italics.
- The titles of articles are put in quotation marks.
- All key words in titles are capitalized.