Chicago Style Author-Date System
Some professors will require you to use an author-date system in the Chicago Style. Rather than footnotes or endnotes, you use a parenthetical citation to cite your evidence. Do not use both systems in the same paper.
A parenthetical citation includes the author name and year of publication. Note that there is no punctuation between the name and date. A page number or range is included to reference a particular section of the text; in this case, a comma separates the date and page number.
(Nelson and Reidstra 2010, 87)
Reference or Works Cited list
All works cited in the paper must be listed alphabetically in a list titled “References” or “Works Cited.” This list is double-spaced and entries are formatted with a hanging indent.
Citations and Reference list entries by source
Book with one author
Book with multiple authors
Book with four or more authors
Article or chapter in an edited book
Book With One Author
(Dunaway 2005) or (Dunaway 2005, 42)
Author's Name: Last Name First. Year of Publication. Title of Book. City
Dunaway, Finis. 2005. Natural Visions: The Power of Images in American
Environmental Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Book With Multiple Authors
If the book has two or three authors or editors, list all names in the order that they appear on the title page. Separate the names with commas and write "and" before the last name.
(Sadker and Sadker 1995)
Authors' Names: Last Name First for First Author Only. Year of
Publication. Title of Book. City
Where Published: Publisher.
Sadker, Myra, and David Sadker. 1995. Failing at Fairness: How
America's Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Touchstone.
Book With Four or More Authors
In the citation, list only the first author followed by "et al." In the reference list, you should list all of the authors.
(Boyer et al. 2007, 18)
Authors' names: Last Name First for First Author Only. Year of
Publication. Title of Book. City
Boyer, Paul, Clifford Clark, Joseph Kett, Neil Salisbury, and Harvard
Sitkoff. 2005. The Enduring Vision: A History of the
American People. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
When citing a chapter or article in a book that contains works by many different authors, list the author and title of the chapter or article that you are using first. The editor/editors of the book as a whole are listed after the title of the book.
(Andriewsky 2003, 255)
Author's Name: Last Name First. Year of Publication. "Article or Chapter
Title." Title of Book,
edited by Editor's Names. Page
Range. City Where Published: Publisher.
Andriewsky, Olga. 2003. "The Paradoxes of Reform: Higher Education in
Post Soviet Ukraine." In Society in Transition: Social
Change Ukraine in Western Perspectives, edited by
Wsevolod Isajiw, 239-268. Toronto: Canadian
Article in Scholarly Journal
Where available, include a DOI for an article you access online. If a DOI is not available, include a URL.
(Shuger 2012, 142).
Author's Name: Last Name First. Year of Publication. "Article Title." Title
of Journal Volume and Issue Number: Page Range. DOI
Information (or URL).
Shuger, Debora. 2012. "Milton's Religion: The Early Years." Milton
Quarterly no. 3: 137-153.
Sangster, Joan. 2008."‘Queen of the Picket Line:’ Beauty Contests in the
Post–World War II
Canadian Labor Movement,
1945–1970,” Labor 5, no.4: 83-106.
Include the date that you accessed the materials if it is a time sensitive issue or you are advised to do so by your professor.
(Government of Ontario 2014)
Author/Agency. Date of Publication. “Title of Page.” Title of site. Date
material modified if required. URL.
Government of Ontario. 2014. “About Ontario.” Ontario. Last modified
Find more examples on Chicago Manual of Style website (select “Author-Date” tab).