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chicago

Chicago Style Author-Date System

Some professors will require you to use an author-date system in the Chicago Style. Rather than footnotes or endnotes, you use a parenthetical citation to cite your evidence. Do not use both systems in the same paper.

In-text citations

A parenthetical citation includes the author name and year of publication. Note that there is no punctuation between the name and date. A page number or range is included to reference a particular section of the text; in this case, a comma separates the date and page number.


(Patel 2012)
(Nelson and Reidstra 2010, 87)


Reference or Works Cited list

All works cited in the paper must be listed alphabetically in a list titled “References” or “Works Cited.” This list is double-spaced and entries are formatted with a hanging indent.

Citations and Reference list entries by source

Book with one author
Book with multiple authors
Book with four or more authors
Article or chapter in an edited book
Journal article
Web page

Book With One Author

In-text citation
(Dunaway 2005) or (Dunaway 2005, 42)

Reference entry
Author's Name: Last Name First. Year of Publication. Title of Book. City

Where Published: Publisher.

Example
Dunaway, Finis. 2005. Natural Visions: The Power of Images in American

Environmental Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book With Multiple Authors

If the book has two or three authors or editors, list all names in the order that they appear on the title page. Separate the names with commas and write "and" before the last name.

In-text citation
(Sadker and Sadker 1995)

Reference entry
Authors' Names: Last Name First for First Author Only. Year of

Publication. Title of Book. City Where Published: Publisher.

Example
Sadker, Myra, and David Sadker. 1995. Failing at Fairness: How

America's Schools Cheat Girls. New York: Touchstone.

 

Book With Four or More Authors

In the citation, list only the first author followed by "et al." In the reference list, you should list all of the authors.

In-text citation
(Boyer et al. 2007, 18)

Reference entry
Authors' names: Last Name First for First Author Only. Year of

Publication. Title of Book. City Where Published:

Publisher.

Example
Boyer, Paul, Clifford Clark, Joseph Kett, Neil Salisbury, and Harvard

Sitkoff. 2005. The Enduring Vision: A History of the

American People. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

When citing a chapter or article in a book that contains works by many different authors, list the author and title of the chapter or article that you are using first. The editor/editors of the book as a whole are listed after the title of the book.

In-text citation
(Andriewsky 2003, 255)

Reference entry
Author's Name: Last Name First. Year of Publication. "Article or Chapter

Title." Title of Book, edited by Editor's Names. Page

Range. City Where Published: Publisher.

Example
Andriewsky, Olga. 2003. "The Paradoxes of Reform: Higher Education in

Post Soviet Ukraine." In Society in Transition: Social

Change Ukraine in Western Perspectives, edited by

Wsevolod Isajiw, 239-268. Toronto: Canadian

Scholars' Press.

Article in Scholarly Journal

Where available, include a DOI for an article you access online. If a DOI is not available, include a URL.

In-text citation
(Shuger 2012, 142).

Reference entry
Author's Name: Last Name First. Year of Publication. "Article Title." Title

of Journal Volume and Issue Number: Page Range. DOI

Information (or URL).

Examples
Shuger, Debora. 2012. "Milton's Religion: The Early Years." Milton

Quarterly no. 3: 137-153. doi:10.1111/milt.12000.


Sangster, Joan. 2008."‘Queen of the Picket Line:’ Beauty Contests in the

Post–World War II Canadian Labor Movement,

1945–1970,” Labor 5, no.4: 83-106.

http://labor.dukejournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/4/83.


Web Page

Include the date that you accessed the materials if it is a time sensitive issue or you are advised to do so by your professor.

In-text citation
(Government of Ontario 2014)

Reference entry.
Author/Agency. Date of Publication. “Title of Page.” Title of site. Date

material modified if required. URL.

Example
Government of Ontario. 2014. “About Ontario.” Ontario. Last modified

July 8. http://www.ontario.ca/government/about-

ontario#section-1.

Find more examples on Chicago Manual of Style website (select “Author-Date” tab).