How to Create the References List
Identify what kind of source you have, and follow the guidelines in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Information about sources is acknowledged at the end of your work in a references list. Every source you cite must appear in this list. Sources you have consulted but not cited are not included.
- The references list should be on its own page(s). The title, References, is centred at the top of the list.
- The entire list is double-spaced and alphabetized by authors' last names. In multi-authored sources, maintain the original order of the authors (i.e. do not change Lee, Brown, & Green to Brown, Green, & Lee).
- Names are inverted (last name first). Never use the full first name of an author or editor. Use only initials.
- When there are multiple works by one author, list them by publication date (earliest one first).
- APA Style uses a hanging indent. The first line of each reference is set flush left. Subsequent lines are indented five to seven spaces. Learn how to format a hanging indent in MS Word here: Create a hanging indent - Word
- In titles of articles and books, capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns.
- Include a
digital object identifier (DOI) where available. A DOI is an alphanumeric identifier that insures there is a persistent link to information on the Internet. It is located on the first page of an electronic journal article near the copyright notice. It is also on the article's database landing page.
Our site provides detailed information on reference entries for various kinds of sources, including books, articles, and websites.
If you cannot find what you are looking for in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, look at the APA website. Do some different keyword combinations: there is a lot of information in their blog and FAQ section.