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How to Create In-text Citations 

In-text citations are brief. They include the author's last name, year of publication, and, for quotations only, page numbers. This is enough information for readers to find the source in the references list. 

Identify the kind of source you have and apply the APA guidelines.

A few examples are covered below.  

Source with One Author

Source with Two Authors

Source with Three, Four, or Five Authors

Source with Six or More Authors

Source with No Author

Two Sources with Same Author and Same Publication Year

Paraphrase

Quotation

Source Found in Another Source

Source with One Author

Insert the surname of the author and the year of publication for a paraphrase and the surname of the author, the year of publication and page number for a quotation.

Paraphrase

A paraphrase re-states someone else's ideas in your words. Always indicate whose idea you are taking. To avoid plagiarism, do not simply re-word something. Put the original source aside and write your version of it. Paraphrases do not need quotation marks. They only require the author’s last name and year of publication, which are separated by a comma. A page number is not required.

 

Bourgois (1995) concludes that submission to corporate culture threatens street culture's norms of masculinity.
Different cultures' definitions of dignity can be in contradiction (Bourgois, 1995).

 

Quotation

A quotation (an exact word-for-word repetition of written or spoken language) needs quotation marks around it. Keep them brief and use them sparingly. Quotations must always be directly followed by a citation that includes the author's last name, year of publication and page number.

 

Bourgois (1995) observes how "[o]bedience to the norms of high-rise, office-corridor culture is in direct contradiction to street culture's definition of personal dignity" (p. 115).

"Obedience to the norms of high-rise, office-corridor culture is in direct contradiction to street culture's definition of personal dignity" (Bourgois, 1995, p. 115).

 

Citing the Same Source within the Same Paragraph

When you refer to an author in your sentence, use the author's surname and date for the first citation. In the same paragraph, you do not need to include the date in subsequent references to the same source if it is written in a sentence. All parenthetical citations must include the author's surname and the year of publication.

Bourgois (1995) concludes that submission to corporate culture threatens street culture's norms of masculinity. Bourgois explains that different cultures' definitions of dignity can be in contradiction.

 

Source with Two Authors

Cite both names for each reference. When referring to the authors in your sentence use the word "and" but in a parenthetical citation use an ampersand "&."  See the examples below.

 

This was written a century and a half ago: "All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they ossify" (Marx & Engels, 1848, p. 38).

Marx and Engels (1848) invoke an economic and social upheavel  that is familiar to contemporary readers.

 

Source with Three, Four, or Five Authors

Ciite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In subsequent citations, write only the first author's surname followed by et al. and the year.

First Reference:

 

Aubrey, Peters, and Smith (2004) explore the relationship between different stages of sleep and memory re-processing.

 

Subsequent References:

 

Aubrey et al. (2004) explore the relationship between different stages of sleep and memory re-processing.

 

Source with Six or More Authors

Ciite only the first author's surname and follow this by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.

 

It was noted that this influence extends to even those outside of the community (Adams et al., 1994).

 

Source with No Author

Cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. If the author is identified as Anonymous, your in-text citation and reference entry should list the author as Anonymous.

 

("Diet for Stress Management", 2012)

(Anonymous, 2010)

 

Two or More Sources from the Same Author in the Same Year

 To differentiate between two sources published in the same year by the same author(s), add a suffix to the date. For example:

 

In two studies by Lee (2008a, 2008b), anti-depressants were found . . .

 

 

Citing a Source you found in Another Source

When you are unable to access an original source, you can cite its findings or argument as they are presented in a different source. Identify the original source in the sentence, followed by a parenthetical citation of the secondary source. The secondary source, not the original source, will be listed in the references list.

 

Khan theorized that . . . (as cited in Cohen, 2011).

 

Punctuation

Note that punctuation marks (periods, commas, semi-colons) follow the parentheses for in-text citations.  

Our site provides detailed information on in-text citing for various kinds of sources.