What is APA Style?
The guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) specify how to do citations, references, headings, tables, appendices and other elements in an academic document. Citation information is presented in the text in parentheses. Cited sources are listed in a “References” section at the end of the paper.
APA tutorial from American Psychological Association:
Click on the links below to
learn more about this style of documentation
When and What to Cite
Review the rules of documenting for APA style.
How to Create In-Text Citations
For those who are new to the APA style of documentation, this page clearly explains the basics of creating in-text citations, including information about integrating quotation and other forms of evidence.
How to Create the References List
This page offers general rules of formatting for the references list, including details about line spacing, indenting, punctuation, and font style.
In-Text Citations/References by Source
Organized by five categories (Books, Sections of Books, Periodicals, Electronic Sources, and Other Sources), this page contains links to 28 examples of in-text citations and references, which demonstrate the detailed variance between types of sources often documented in academic work.
Formatting Guidelines and Sample
This page offers useful formatting guidelines about font size, margins, subheadings, line spacing, title pages, and more. In addition, a pdf sample paper is available as an example of these guidelines.
Printable Guide to APA Citation - PDF
When to Cite
Academic writing synthesizes original work with the work of others. To avoid plagiarism, give credit for anything taken from other sources.
You must document all sources used in a paper.
Cite the following
- Cite all paraphrases or summaries of ideas or information that are not your own.
- Cite all direct quotations of two or more consecutive words. In fact, a single distinctive term taken from a source should be placed in quotation marks and cited.
- You can use sources that are not simply written words. These need to be cited too (some examples include charts, films, maps, graphs, web pages, photographs, television news reports, lectures, and audio tapes).
Do not cite the following
- Your ideas, opinions or conclusions
- Common knowledge in the discipline. Common knowledge in psychology might be that Skinner was a Behaviourist. In sociology, it might be that Durkheim created the academic discipline sociology.
If you are ever confused about whether to cite or not, cite. It is better to err on the side of citing than to neglect to cite and risk plagiarising.